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Final Review Biol 240w
Terms in this set (124)
Aldosterone is secreted from the _____________ and regulates electrolyte homeostasis by activating _______________.
Adrenal glands; Na+/K+ pumps
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the inflammation response?
Macrophages engulf pathogens at the site of infection and secrete cytokines.
People who are lactose intolerant in adulthood suffer mild to severe gastrointestinal distress due their lack of a specific ________________ in the ________________.
brush border enzyme; small intestine
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning the physiology of nephrons?
Na+ is actively transported into the interstitial fluid in the proximal tubule.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the circulatory system of amphibians?
They can adaptively control blood flow into/out of the pulmocutaneous circuit.
An animal's diet depends on its body's nutritional requirements. For example, obligate carnivores (e.g., felines) must consume other animals because ___________________.
They do not have the physiological mechanisms to synthesize essential nutrients (e.g., vitamin A) from plants.
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning the loop of Henle?
The countercurrent multiplier system maintains the hypertonicity of the medulla via positive feedback.
After taking an antibiotic to treat a case of strep throat, you soon experience gastrointestinal discomfort and diarrhea. How might you explain this unfortunate side effect?
The antibiotic disrupted the microbiome in your large intestine.
Many amphibians exhibit complex life cycles, where fully aquatic larvae transition into terrestrial adults via metamorphosis. Based on your understanding of nitrogenous waste, you would predict that amphibian larvae (e.g., tadpoles) excrete ____________, while adults excrete primarily _____________.
Which of the following is a difference between B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes?
B cells can be activated by direct contact with antigens on a pathogen
While investigating the attic of an abandoned house, you come across an ornate chest covered in the unusual runes of a forgotten language. Without hesitation, you pop that bad boy open and and are immediately hit in the face by a blast of fetid air. Shortly after inhaling the dusty air, you feel your airways begin to tighten and feel itchy. What is the physiological cause of your discomfort?
Mast cells in your sinuses secreted histamine in response to allergens.
Which of the following is unique to animals with open circulatory systems?
Their circulatory fluid also functions as the interstitial fluid.
While dissecting a new species, you open its body cavity to reveal a surprisingly long digestive tract. Based on this information, it is likely that this animal is a __________________.
TRUE or FALSE: An animal cell placed in a hypertonic/hyperosmotic solution would lose water due to osmosis.
Which of the following situations would decrease intrapulmonary pressure (i.e., within your lungs)?
contraction of diaphram
Which of the following is an example of innate immunity?
A hemocyte performing phagocytosis
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the Cardiac Cycle?
It is driven by pressure gradients and atrial/ventricular systole.
One of your friends (acquaintances?), Belligerent Ben, decided to travel to Cancún on a "wellness" day. Classic Ben! In a stroke of karmic justice, Ben returned home with several bot fly larvae in his arm. You can safely conclude that these larvae are examples of ________________.
TRUE or FALSE: Boyle's Law states that intrapulmonary pressure increases as lung volume increases.
Which of the following is NOT an adaptive trait in a marine environment?
Cells that enable the passive movement of ions/solutes into gill capillaries.
Celiac disease affects an individual's ability to tolerate gluten in their diet. Consuming gluten triggers the production of antibodies that attack the cells of the small intestine. This would be an example of a(n) _________________.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of single circulation in animals?
Poor regulation of blood pressure
Toward the end of World War II, the Dutch people were subjected to a severe famine. Pregnant mothers who survived this famine gave birth to children that later developed metabolic disorders, despite being fed a healthy diet. The development of these illnesses is a consequence of _______________________.
TRUE or FALSE: Antigen-presenting cells exhibit a pathogen's target antigens on class-2 MHC molecules.
This sickly individual failed to pack enough fruit for his long voyage looking for pirate booty and is now suffering from malnutrition (e.g., scurvy). It is clear that this foolish seafarer has not been acquiring enough __________________ in his diet.
Blood pressure is lower in capillaries compared to other vessels because ________________.
they are distant from the heart
The ____________ of the kidney exhibits the highest osmolarity due to the active transport of Na from the ____________________.
medulla; ascending loop of Henle
Which of the following is an example of intracellular digestion?
A macrophage performing phagocytosis.
In order to maximize water retention, birds excrete _________, which is a nontoxic form of ____________.
uric acid; nitrogenous waste
TRUE or FALSE: Kangaroo rats can go without drinking a drop of water for their entire lifetime.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning gastrulation in human embryos?
The cells of the epiblast invaginate to form the primitive streak.
If an animal exhibits a variable body temperature that fluctuates significantly in response to changes in the environment, this animal would be most accurately classified as a(n) ________________.
Cell determination is initiated by internal signals such as _________________, and external signals such as __________________.
Cytoplasmic determinants; induction signaling
True or False? In animals with complex body plans, the ratio of surface area to volume has important implications for thermoregulation. For example, smaller animals have a lower surface area to volume ratio (SA:V) and can generally retain body heat better than larger animals.
During fertilization in frogs, the ___________ hemisphere rotates toward the site of sperm-egg fusion, revealing the ________________.
animal; grey crescent
Like most college students on a Friday night, you decide to head into the lab and hang out with your fruit fly cultures. While reviewing the recently sequenced genomes of your flies, you discover a mutation of the bicoid gene that results in the development of larvae with two tails (and no head). You conclude that the mechanism behind this mutation most likely involves _________________________.
Disruption to the production/distribution of cytoplasmic determinants.
The structure that secretes hormones and facilitates the exchange of nutrients and gases between mother and fetus is known as the ________________.
During neurulation, the ectoderm develops into the _______________, which ultimately matures into the _________________________.
neural tube; brain and spinal cord
Moles (mammals) and mole crickets (insects) possess strikingly similar shovel-like appendages, which evolved as adaptations for life underground; however, these animals are very distantly related. Thus, you can conclude that these structures arose are a result of ________________.
On a cold night in Erie, you might feel the desire to cuddle up next to a warm, furry friend (e.g., cat, dog, significant other). This mechanism of thermoregulation is known as ______________.
True or False? The development of the four extraembryonic membranes is an adaptation for reproduction in aquatic environments.
If an ovulated egg is NOT fertilized, then ________________________________.
the corpus luteum eventually disintegrates
Kartagener's Syndrome is a genetic disorder that disrupts the formation of non-motile cilia on the surface of all somatic cells. Due to the critical role that cilia play in cell communication, this disorder most directly affects the developmental process of __________________.
Which of the following is NOT a classical model organism for studying animal development?
True or False? Under the right conditions, a single blastomere isolated from a four-cell human embryo is capable of developing into an independent embryo.
Snoot Slitherton, your pet snake, is hanging out in his cage when his heat lamp burns out. As the temperature in the tank decreases, you predict that _____________.
Snoot's internal temperature and metabolism would decrease.
Zygotic cleavage is different from normal cell division because ____________________.
the cell cycle is shortened
During oogenesis in animals, primary oocytes are arrested in Meiosis I until ______________, and secondary oocytes are arrested in Meiosis II until ________________.
The outermost extraembryonic membrane, which facilitates gas exchange, is known as the ________________.
All New Mexico Whiptail lizards are female and produce eggs that can develop without fertilization. This reproductive strategy is called ____________________.
Which of the following is NOT an example of acclimatization?
The evolution of morphological traits that confer the ability to fly.
A mountain climber spending time at base camp before summiting a peak.
A human synchronizing their circadian cycle in response to daylight savings time.
A diver slowly ascending from the ocean floor.
True or False? Mitochondrial DNA, which codes for proteins that regulate cell metabolism, is maternally inherited.
Which of the following is FALSE concerning X-chromosome inactivation?
It is a mechanism of dosage compensation in female mammals.
The inactivated X chromosome remains in the cell as a Barr body.
The inactivated X chromosome condenses to form heterochromatin, inhibiting transcription.
It is a mechanism to prevent Y-chromosome dominance.
When they're not performing children's songs in sold-out elementary school gymnasiums, The Wiggles conduct rigorous scientific research in the Northern Territory of Australia. On one of their expeditions, they discover a new species of beetle. They soon determine that every individual possesses both male and female reproductive systems, although each beetle produces either eggs or sperm at any given time (not both). You would correctly identify these animals as _________________________.
True or False? Cell determination refers to the point at which a cell has undergone significant morphological change and has produced its specialized structures.
Which of the following is FALSE concerning gastrulation in frogs?
Gastrulation gives rise to the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Involution through the blastopore forms the archenteron.
Dividing cells migrate inward through the blastopore.
The trophoblast aids in implantation of the gastrula.
Genetic testing on a developing embryo indicates a hereditary disease that weakens and impairs the function of each cell's cytoskeleton. Based on your knowledge of embryonic development, which of the following processes would be most severely affected by this disorder?
On one of their expeditions to the Northern Territory, The Wiggles discover gelatinous egg masses belonging to an undescribed species in a secluded pond. They observe that each egg mass contains thousands of embryos and noted that no adults were present in the area. Based on this information, The Wiggles could generally conclude that ________________.
This species most likely exhibits external fertilization.
Maternal effect genes are responsible for producing _______________, which direct pattern formation by regulating ________________.
cytoplasmic determinants; hox genes
Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the Ovarian Cycle?
Progesterone inhibits LH secretion via positive feedback.
The corpus luteum temporarily secretes progesterone, which sustains the endometrium.
All of the above
Maturing follicles produce estrogens to trigger the LH surge, which stimulates ovulation.
Hormonal birth control ("The Pill") consists of synthetic estrogen derivatives (e.g., progestin). These drugs are effective at preventing pregnancy because _________________.
Progestin assumes the role of the corpus luteum to prevent ovulation.
Countercurrent heat exchange is an adaptation for living in cold climates because ____________________.
Warm arterial blood transfers heat to venous blood before it returns to the heart.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning Dolly the Sheep?
She was cloned from the nucleus of a mature mammary gland cell transferred into a de-nucleated egg.
The year is 2040: extraterrestrial life has just been discovered! You are tasked with identifying the chemical composition of this alien life form. During this process you discover an unknown element. How do you determine whether this element is a macronutrient or a micronutrient?
It is a macronutrient if it is required in high quantities.
Which of the following is a consequence of irresponsible agricultural practices?
True or False? Cytokinins act to stimulate lateral growth from axillary buds, while auxin acts to inhibit such growth (maintaining apical dominance).
After skipping BIOL 240 lecture to binge-watch a marathon of The Great British Baking Show on Netflix, you develop a craving for mulberry pie. You seek to satisfy this craving by acquiring a stem-cutting from your neighbor's mulberry tree, and planting it in your yard. You have just performed the reproductive act of __________________.
When you planted your mulberry shoot-cutting, the relatively high accumulation of ____________ at the site of the wound (callus) stimulated the growth of new roots.
Commonly posted in anticipation for a spicy internet discussion, this dank meme features the King of Pop feasting on ______________ at the movie theater.
True or False? The creation of spores (mega or micro) occurs via meiosis.
Which of the following is an adaptive response to biotic stressors?
effector trigger immunity
During an experiment, a petri dish full of plant cells is treated with cytokinins alone. You would correctly predict that this hormone treatment would ________________________.
None of the following: stimulate cell elongation
,stimulate cell elongation and division, and
stimulate cell division
For plants experiencing drought conditions, which of the following responses would be adaptive?
Enhanced production of abscisic acid
Which of the following is FALSE concerning de-etiolation?
Changes in light availability activate phytochrome receptors in the cytoplasm.
Differential gene expression results in the growth of thick, pale stems.
Protein kinase activates transcription factors, which regulate gene expression.
Ca2+ and cGMP act as second messengers.
A germinating root exhibits ______________ due in part to the orientation of starchy structures called ______________.
positive gravitropism; statoliths
On your next assignment with the Pennsylvania DEP, you are sent to an abandoned mine that has become severely contaminated by heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. In order to clean up the site, you develop a transgenic plant that can accumulate high concentrations of these contaminants within its tissues. Your approach of cultivating these plants in the contaminated site is an example of _________________.
True or False? When a plant is receiving sufficient sunlight, its phytochrome receptors are rapidly converted from PFR to PR.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning seed germination?
The radicle is the first embryonic structure to emerge.
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of asexual reproduction?
Pollinators are unnecessary
Outcompete others in stable environment
Increased genetic variation
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the relationship between plants and bacteria?
Plants house rhizobacteria in anaerobic root nodules, they perform nitrogen fixation for plants, and plants provide a source of energy (sugars) to the rhizobacteria. (All of the above)
True or False? Self-fertilization ("selfing") is more likely to occur in a monoecious plant compared to a dioecious plant.
While inspecting his crops, a farmer is surprised to find that some of his corn appeared to be sprouting from their kernels. Based on your knowledge of plant hormones, it is likely that the affected kernels ______________________.
Are underproducing abscisic acid
Which of the following is TRUE regarding plant immunity?
Effectors are molecules produced by pathogens that can block PAMP-triggered immunity.
The reproductive organ of a plant that produces female gametophytes is the _____________.
Many angiosperms produce flowers that store their sugary nectar in narrow, tube-like structures called nectaries. Common pollinators of these angiosperms exhibit traits that allow them to access these elusive sources of energy. The existence of these traits is likely the result of __________________.
During an expedition to an uncharted island, you discover an unknown species of mycorrhizae. You observe this species growing in a filamentous sheath surrounding the root system of the host plant. Based on this observation, you classify this species as a(n) ______________.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning male gametophytes in angiosperms?
Male gametophytes are produced in the stamen.
A farming corporation called Salty Seed® uses "flood" irrigation to water their fields. If this irrigation technique is continued over several consecutive growing seasons, how might this practice affect their crop yield?
Crop yield would decrease due to the increasing solute concentrations in the soil.
Which of the following is FALSE concerning the Hypersensitive Response?
Methylsalicylic acid is produced, which contributes to systemic acquired resistance.
It is an example of effector-triggered immunity.
Lesions are formed around infected areas of the plant.
It is an evolved defense against herbivorous species (grasshoppers).
After returning to the previously uncharted island, you discover a new species of angiosperm. You collect a single plant from the wild and bring it back to your field research facility (Transpiration Station) for observation. Several weeks later, you are surprised to discover that this plant produced several seeds, despite being grown in complete isolation from other plants. You conclude that this species ______________________.
reproduces via apomixis
While working in a botany research lab, you attempt to fertilize a plant with the following S-gene genotype: S1S3. Assuming this species exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility, which of the following pollen grains would result in successful fertilization?
Which of the following is TRUE concerning thigmotropism?
Auxin accumulates in cells on the non-contacted side of the shoot.
After watching Guy Fieri noisily and single-handedly ingest a full 16" pizza on Diners, Drive-ins, and Dives, you decide to create your own home-made pizza. Luckily, you purchased a whole bag of fresh tomatoes last week, so you don't even need to run to the store! To your dismay, as you pull out your bag of tomatoes, you find that they are all spoiled. Using your BIOL 240 knowledge, you sadly realize that _______________.
Your tomatoes spoiled due to the accumulation of ethylene in the bag.
After analyzing the elemental composition of a plant tissue sample, you obtain the percent composition for each of the following essential nutrients:
C (90%), O (5%), N (2%), P (2%), ... Mo (0.0001%)
Based on this information, you can safely conclude that _____________________.
Molybdenum is a micronutrient.
Which of the following would you expect to occur when abscisic acid is up-regulated in a drought-stressed plant?
The stomata will close
Strigolactone hormones were named after _________________.
A mythical parasitic creature that feeds on the life-force of children.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the Pressure Flow Hypothesis?
Phloem sap is transported from source to sink due to positive pressure.
What will occur after a plant closes all of its stomata?
Photosynthesis will eventually cease,
Gas exchange will be significantly reduced., and Transpiration will slow down and eventually cease.
During a relaxing hike into Wintergreen Gorge, you stumble across a 50-foot tall representative of Kingdom Plantae, with needle-shaped leaves. Using your knowledge of plant anatomy and taxonomy, you conclude that this organism must ___________________. This plant is currently in the organism's _________________ stage.
be a vascular plant; ___________________
True or False? You would expect a plant to up-regulate stomata production (and thus stomatal density) under low CO2 conditions.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all organisms within the Kingdom Plantae?
Mycorrhizae share a symbiotic relationship with many plant species because ____________.
They aid in the uptake and transformation of water and nutrients from the soil.
Which of the following is characteristic of gymnosperms?
they exhibit strictly single feralization
Short-distance transport in plants is driven primarily by __________ concentration, while long-distance transport is driven largely by _____________ gradients.
What role does NADPH play in the Calvin Cycle?
NADPH reduces three-carbon sugars to create G3P by donating electrons from the Light Reactions.
The idea stating that undifferentiated cells develop their "identity" due to progenitor cell from which they divided is referring to _____________________.
Lineage based mechanisms
Which of the following is TRUE regarding primary growth?
Mature xylem cells arise from the procambium
While shopping at your local Giant Eagle, you come across a shopper picking out potatoes. Emboldened by your knowledge of plant organs, you annoyingly interrupt this person by informing them that potatoes are actually _________________.
Cell expansion in plants occurs due to ________________________________.
the uptake of water into a central vacuole
Although chlorophyll a is the primary pigment type, plants utilize several other accessory pigments. What is the benefit of these secondary pigments?
They enable plants to perform photosynthesis using a broader range of wavelengths.
True or False?
Plant cells retain the ability to dedifferentiate throughout their lifetime.
While exploring Penn State Behrend's campus (it's a certified arboretum!), you come across a non-native plant featuring enormous leaves. Based on the size of these leaves, this plant is most likely native to a(n) ___________________.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding water potential?
Water potential in the xylem is greatest in the root system.
Based on your understanding of electromagnetic energy, which of the following statements is TRUE?
Purple photons travel at the highest-energy wavelengths.
After a thrilling BIOL 240 lecture about plant development, you run to Lowe's in search of a pet plant for your dorm room. A friendly employee recommends a small hibiscus shrub (an angiosperm), claiming that the plant would not grow any larger. You politely correct this individual by explaining that _____________________________.
Plants exhibit indeterminate growth.
Why might drought conditions affect the yield of a crop composed of C3 plants?
The dry air and intense sunlight would force the plants to keep their stomata closed.
What are some true things concerning secondary growth in vascular plants?
Secondary growth is a characteristic of woody plants.
Secondary growth arises from the lateral meristems.
Secondary growth results in growth in the girth (width) of shoots and roots.
Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides in North America, acts by inhibiting Photosystem II in weeds and other pest species. Why might exposure to this compound result in a plant's death?
The Calvin Cycle would eventually stop producing sugars due to a lack of production from the Light Reactions.
Another herbicidal compound, chloramphenicol, inhibits the Calvin Cycle of plants. Why might exposure to this compound ultimately lead to the shut down the Light Reactions?
The Calvin Cycle recycles several vital components of the Light Reactions.
True or False? Primary and secondary growth can occur in a plant simultaneously, but not in the same area at the same time.
After your first failed attempt to purchase a pet plant, you return to Lowe's and peruse the bizarrely expansive desert succulent plant collection. You can safely assume that these plants ____________________.
are CAM plants
C4 and CAM plants have evolved metabolic mechanisms that enable them to carry out the Calvin Cycle even when their stomata are closed. How are they able to do this?
they convert CO2 into stable intermediate forms that can be utilized at a later time.
True or False? Gametophytes (n) give rise to gametes (n) via meiosis.
Why does the surface of a black car become so hot after sitting in the sun?
Excited electrons release thermal energy after activation by photons.
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