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47 terms

BIOLOGY June 21

STUDY
PLAY
unicellular
Type of cell bacteria is
prokaryotic
Number of Cells bacteria has
Auto (chemo)/hetero (absorb)
How bacteria gets its food
everywhere
Location of bacteria
3.5-4 billion years ago
When did bacteria first appear
Reproduction and mutation
Why have they lasted?
archaebacteria and eubacteria
The Two Kingdoms
structure
Archaebacteria became a separate kingdom due to its _________.
extremophiles, extreme
Archaebacteria are _____________, they live in _______ environments.
prokaryotic and unicellular
Similarities between archea and eu cells
chemistry/structure, time difference, how they get food, location
Differences in archea and eu cells
Thermoacidophile
lives in hot and acidic places
halophiles
lives in salty places
human, virus
Bacteria cells are smaller than _____ cells and bigger than a _____.
bacilli
Bacteria shaped like a rod
spirochetes
Bacteria shaped like a squiggle
cocci
Bacteria shaped like circles
Plasma membrane
controls what comes in and out
Cell wall
some protection; maintains structure of cell
Capsule
optional; primary protection from antibiotics
ribosome
make proteins
Cytoplasm
everything inside the cell; contains cytosol (liquid that everything floats around in)
Flagella
help swim
pili
help them attach; aids in exchanging plasmids
Plasmids
extra pieces of DNA; can contain genes for resistance, that create capsules
Spore
rare for most bacteria; for protection when bacteria is in an inhospitable environment
gram positive
dark purple results, no capsule, can use antibiotics
gram negative
light pink results, has a capsule, much tougher time finding an antibiotic
binary fission
1. copy DNA
2. split in half
temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, space
Population is limited by... (five things)
conjugation
Using a pili, two bacteria can trade plasmids (trade info)
NOT part of reproduction!
E. coli
helps you digest your food
medicine
First thing bacteria does for us: make ________.
oil
Second thing bacteria does for us: breaks down ___.
oxygen
Third thing bacteria does for us: makes ______.
foundation, food chains
Fourth thing bacteria does for us: provides __________ for many ____ ______.
pathogenic bacteria
bacteria that makes you sick
antibiotics
kill bacteria by preventing reproduction or punching holes in the cell wall
1940's, Fleming
When were antibiotics first mass-produced and who discovered them?
Kirby-Bauer Method
look for the clear zone where no bacteria grow (zone of inhibition)
zone of inhibition
the clear zone where no bacteria grow
resistance
Some bacteria are lucky enough to have a natural mutation that allows them to survive in the presence of an antibiotic, they can pass this mutation to other bacteria either through normal reproduction or through conjugation
superbugs
can resist all antibiotics
bacteria
Only take antibiotics for ________ diseases
extra antibiotics
Dispose of _____ ___________ correctly
correct, time
Take antibiotics for the _______ amount of ____
other people's
Don't take _____ _______ prescription