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Animal behavior and welfare final
Terms in this set (82)
Name one difference between natural selection and artificial selection
natural selection- individual is assessed through its representation in future generations
artificial selection- goal oriented
Domestication results in very similar phenotypic changes in various and unrelated species (True or False).
Name 2 phenotypic (morphological or physiological) changes that might be a result of domestication in animals.
floppy ears and curled tails
animals move into an anthropogenic habitat, most likely due to attraction to human waste
humans have initiated domestication
humans deliberately set out to domesticate a species
Provide 2 examples of genetic mechanisms that can lead to behavior change in animals
dominant and recessive genes
study of animal behavior in natural environments
the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
Overselection for single traits can negatively affect other traits. Provide one example in commercial livestock production where overselection for production parameters have negatively affected behavior or health of animals.
selection for rapid gain and leanness resulted in a greater startle response
Physiology of behavior or causation
Development of behavior over generations
Development of behavior over animals lifetime
Contribution of behavior to survival or reproductive fitness
List 4 natural behaviors performed cows or pigs or chicken
pecking, perching, walking, and sleeping
Define imprinting and provide a reason as to why it is different from other learning
behavior that includes learning and innate components and is generally irreversible
Provide 1 difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning
classical conditioning-association of a stimulus with a reward or a punishment
operant conditioning-association one of the animals behaviors with a reward or punishment
Dimitry Belyaev claimed that it was possible to measure the extent of domestication by looking at morphological traits that the animals possess. Provide 4 examples of such phenotypic traits associated with domestication in chickens
dwarf and giant breeds, body proportions, sex linked with differences decreased, feather color
Can all behaviors exhibited by an animal be explained by principle of stimulus-response and operant conditioning? Provide 1 limitation of this concept of behaviorism
yes, innate behaviors might be suppressed during the initial stages of training but eventually will replace the conditioned behavior
Provide 2 examples of innate or hard-wired behaviors and 2 examples of behaviors that are shaped by experience and learning
innate behavior- burrowing in rats and nest building in sows
learned behavior-seagulls dropping shellfish on rocks, and using tools to obtain foof
Vocalization is an important form of communication in livestock and poultry. Provide any 3 functions of vocalizations in livestock or poultry
distress calls, roosting calls, and feeding calls
What are the 3 components that encompass the concept of animal welfare
affective state, basic health and functioning, and natural living
Chicken kept for egg production are often beak trimmed using a hot blade at 6 weeks old to prevent the injurious pecking and damaging the eggs. Beaks are well innervated and highly supplied with blood vessels. Because the procedure is painful for birds, most of the birds are required to be beak conditioned at the hatchery at 1-day age by infrared lasers. Which of the 3 component(s) of animal welfare does this case belong?
basic health and fuctioning
Define and provide 1 example each of circadian and circannual pattern of behavior
circadian- pertaining to daily, 24 hour repetition (sleep cycles)
circannual- occurring every year (estrus in sheep)
Name 2 behavioral indicators of disturbance
altered orientation and startle response
Name any 3 factors that could determine the standards and laws regarding animal welfare in particular country
religion, supply and demand, financial status of the country
Cows can discriminate between people. Provide an example of how this ability to recognize human can affect cows welfare in a commercial production environment
A handler who abuses and hits on the cow will have a different fear response from the cow compared to the handler that does not hit and abuse the cow
You were asked to study pain related behavior in a group of 20 recently beak trimmed chickens. Give an example of the method or an experiment design you would choose.
Name two classic sickness-related behavior. Why are sickness behavior important to the animal?
decreased activity and reduction in feeding behavior
these behaviors can provide clues about the nature of the sickness
Aggression in turkeys is an abnormal behavior in quantity. Name 1 management practice that could potentially cause that behavior.
How is focal sampling different from scan sampling method for behavior studies
scan sampling-recording what each member of the group is doing at the instant the sample is taken
focal sampling-follows the behavior of on animal or a small group
What is 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of ad libitum sampling while studying behavior
advantage- very informal with no constraints
disadvantage- generates many notes
A subordinate chicken is chased by a dominant chicken in a cage-free barn, what stress response is triggered immediately? Name the components and the messengers/hormones involved?
neurons, hypothalamus, norepinephrine, adrenal glands, cortex, medulla
Differentiate between SA response different from the HPA response (at least 3 differences)
SA-conveys info via nervous system, faster response to stress, more specific
HPA- conveys into via blood, release of GC is slower, less specific
The hormone/neuromessenger below are released by Adrenal gland. Name the specific region within the adrenal gland that releases
a) Epinephrine b) Corticosterone
epinephrine- adrenal medulla
corticosterone- adrenal cortex
Give 3 examples of physiological and/or behavioral response of the activation of SA system.
increased heart rate, dilated pupils, relaxation of the baldder
Provide 1 practical example of each of the production related stresses affecting commercial livestock or poultry
physical-confinement, animals placed on unnatural surfaces
psychological-transporting animal between facilities
3R principle of animal research
refinement, replacement, reduction
What do you understand by cognitive ability of animals? Are farm animals capable of demonstrating cognitive ability?
we understand the direct result of brain function
Which area of the hypothalamus is associated with combining/integrating input from different brain regions in response to sensory information and initiating the HPA cascade by releasing CRH?
mid brain function
Auditory and visual sensory information
limbic system / forebrain function
Cognition and emotion
brain stem function
Cholinergic information from visceral organs
Circumventricular organs function
Blood borne chemosensory signals
After an animals initial exposure to stress, level of cortisol was reported to increase in the blood. At the brain level, binding of cortisol to a large number of receptors resulted in the termination of ACTH release. What is this response called and name the 2 types of receptors that are involved?
HPA stress response
relives feelings of depression and anxiety
nurturing feelings and promotes the bonding associated with parenting behavior
feelings of euphoria analgesia (runners high)
associated with feelings of joy, happiness, and bonding
associated with feeling of being energized
associated with attentiveness, sleeping, and dreaming in humans
Name one neurotransmitter associated with pleasant experience
Which of the following is not a component of the limbic system?
Can you acclimate a flock or a herd to cope with environmental stresses? Provide an example.
you can put them in a room and slowly increase or decrease the temperature to help acclimate them to the weather that is outside
Name any 5 physiological parameters that you can quantify to measure stress
heart rate, temperature, dilated pupils, ulcers, growth rate
Which of the following is not a characteristic of stereotypical behavior?
d. Includes components of the behavior the animal is trying to perform
D. Includes components of the behavior the animal is trying to perform
___________refers to the ability of an animal to maintain constant internal environment despite external or internal changes
provides an exact and faithful recording of behaviors that are being observed over a given time period
allows for the true measurement of frequency, duration and the exact time when behaviors start and stop
at the point when each interval begins, the observer records whether or not the behavior of interest is occurring in the subject
at the point when the next internal begins, the observer records whether or not the behavior of interest occurred during the previous interval
Which of the following is not a common mistake during behavior experiment?
b. Confounded by time
d. Observer bias
What are the limitations of research involving monitoring or analyzing brain function?
a. Invasive brain damage
b. Incomplete understanding of functionality
c. Ethics - researcher conscience and legislations or institutional ethics committee
How does stress during different age of an animal affect the HPA axis
aging can cause dysregulation of the HPA axis such as delayed recovery to basal HPA activity after stress
Differentiate between salutogenic and pathogenic stress
salutogenic-did the stress result in psychological insight, strength or growth
pathogenic- did the stress result in dysfunction
A dog is able to meet its owner after a separation period of 10 days. The dog goes on to display affection behavior such as tail wagging, jumping and licking the owner. If you conduct a functional MRI of the dog at that particular moment, which area of the brain would you expect to lit up?
Chronic stress can affect the ability of an animal to feel happiness. It does so by
a. Increasing the threshold at which the emotion is experienced
b. Decreasing the threshold at which the emotion is experienced
b. Decreasing the threshold at which the emotion is experienced
Stress can also alter the coping systems in brain in several ways. Name two such ways
impairing cognitive processes and reward systems
Provide one example each of objective and subjective measures of pain after tail docking in a dairy calf
objective-pressure or force plate
What are the 3 approaches of mitigating pain in animals
objective vs subjective assessments
understanding the behavior
Are there any federal laws in the United States to ensure animal welfare? If yes, name the law along with the organization responsible for enforcing the law.
Yes, AWA enforced by federal inspection and civil administrative hearing
Farm animals are exempt from most of the animal welfare laws in the Unites States. Which of the following species is further exempted from Humane Slaughter Act
How is US animal welfare law different from the EU laws. One main difference
EU protects all animals used for research and also see a strong connection between animal welfare and food safety
What are the consequences of prolonged activation of the stress response
decreased growth, ulcers, and impaired learning and memory
Does stress negatively affect humoral and cell-mediated immunity in similar manner?
What are the factors that can influence individual animals to react differently to identical stress? Give 3 examples.
species, age, gender
If you are conducting a comprehensive comparison of behaviors between wild versus domestic horses, what are the 4 main parameters you would focus on
These are behaviors that are important from the standpoint that the animal wants (or needs) to do only under certain circumstances. Provide an example.
wallowing in pigs
Name types of abnormal behavior 2 each in appearance and in quantity
appearance-cribbing and pacing
quantity- aggression and inactivity
Provide 2 evidence-based arguments in support and in against of cage to cage-free transition of laying hens in the United States
laying hens in cages cannot spread their wings
in cage free systems, chickens need to be handled repeatedly, but chickens are easily stressed upon being catched
Different sensing and automated tools can be utilized to monitor welfare and behavior in poultry farming. Provide two advantages and disadvantages of using sensors to monitor broiler behaviors
advantages-help control production environment and temp
disadvantages- decrease human-animal interaction and objectify animals
Developmental stage of an animal influences its ability to respond to stress. How does the HPA response differ during prenatal stage versus old age
prenatal stress may result in hyper responsive HPA
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