Who was the first to record EEG in humans?
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Loreta refers to an algorithm estimate of what?The location of underlying brain generatorsSue and Siegfried Othmer's approach to neurofeedback is called what?Infra-low frequency trainingIn classical Pavlovian condition a conditioned stimulus is paired with what?A neutral stimulusDuring the instrumental or operant conditioning, a behavior is reinforced in order to do what?Increase the behaviorShaping is defined as what?An operant procedure where successive approximations toward a final desired behavior are reinforcedLong-term potentiation at the synaptic level is facilitated by what?Operant conditioningNegative reinforcement involves what?Escaping a negative consequenceLong-term potentiation is defined as a persistent what?Strengthening of synapsesWhat training factors can affect the brain's response to the training?Frequency of training, length of training, and challenge or demand of trainingWho was the first to show that humans were able to self-regulate brainwave activity?KamiyaWhat assumption is most relevant to feedback on control of biological systems?Everyone has an individual stress responseWhat part of the brain is most associated with emotional response?AmygdalaWhich area of the brain is where the stress response is thought to be turned off?HippocampusRegulation of the stress response is forced to occur mainly in what area?Parietal lobesThe autonomic nervous system is comprised of what?Sympathetic and parasympathetic branchesIs the male brain heavier or lighter than the female brain?HeavierWhat are the two basic types of brain cells?Neurons (primary signaling) and glia cells (support neurons)Brain information travels up to what speed?268 miles per hourThe three pathway units in a neuron are what?Axon, dendrite, myelin sheathThe basic chemicals involved in depolarization and hyperpolarization are what?Sodium and potassiumDepolarization makes the membrane potential what?Less negativeAn inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP) occurs when what?An action potential ends in an inhibitory synapseA primary function of the executive network is to switch between the salience and default mode networks - true or false?FalseAn action potential consists of what?Rapid depolarization followed by repolarizationLong term potentiation (LPT) is considered a primary mechanism of what?Underpinning learning and memoryThe synchrony of the EEG rhythm of the two hemispheres becomes detectable around what time?The 34th week of gestationWhat are considered the four lobes of the brain?Frontal, temporal, parietal, occipitalA primary function of the reticular activating system (RAS) is to what?Activate brain activity in generalBrodmann areas are based on what?Cytoarchitectural organization of neurons (i.e., cellular composition)The orbito-frontal prefrontal cortex is primarily involved in what?Affective evaluationThe frontal lobes are the largest of the four lobes and responsible for many different functions - true or false?TrueWhat area of the brain is responsible for receiving and processing information from the body?Somatosensory cortex Somesthetic area Somatic sensory areaWhat area is most responsible for facial recognition?T4Inefficiency of the occipital lobes may result in what?Loss of vision, visual deficitsThe cingulate gyrus is located where?Just below the cortexInefficiency of the right hemisphere is associated with what?Aggressive behaviorInefficiency of the limbic system is associated with what?Loss of control of emotionsData derived from the qEEG to determine the presence of dysregulation is what?Spectral analysis, absolute / relative amplitude within a frequency, coherenceThe three basic types of neurons are what?Sensory, motor, relayElectrodes convert biological signals like the EEG into currents of what?ElectronsWhat is resistance measured in?OhmsClinicians perform an impedance test to do what?-Measure a complex form of resistance -Determine if the electrode is attached properly -Ensure the presence of a strong biological signalA good rule of thumb when checking impedance is what?Do not exceed 5 khoms and be balanced within 1 khoms between sitesWhat does a modern amplifier process?The signal difference between two inputsFilters serve what functions?-Suppressing unwanted frequency ranges -Selecting specific frequency ranges for viewingIs having a good ground important for what?-Safety -Reducing resistance -Reducing artifacts in signalsWhat is the Nyquist Theorem?In order to accurately and precisely measure a sample, the sampling rate should be twice that of the highest frequency. For example, in isokinetic testing, if the device moves at a rate of 200deg/sec, we would want the machine to draw samples at a rate of 400Hz.The analysis of the EEG is an analysis of what?Time seriesTypical data derived from the EEG includes what?-Spectral analysis -Absolute and relative amplitude -CoherenceSignals are coherent when the difference in magnitude between two signals is what?StableA bipolar placement is where what?Each of the two electrodes is located in an active site on the scalpThe 10-20 system is what?An international system of electrode placementfMRI works by detecting what?Blood oxygen levels and flowAn EEG yields _________ temporal resolution and ________ spatial resolutionExcellent temporal solution and poor spatial resolutionMuscle, EKG and eye-movement are examples of what?Physiological artifactsThe four basic categories of cerebral oscillations are what?-Delta -Theta -Alpha -BetaIn adults, excess Delta activity has been shown to increase with what?-Proximity to brain lesions and tumors -Deep sleep -AnesthesiaThe two different types of theta have been described as what?-Widespread scalp distribution theta -Frontal midline thetaGenerally speaking in adults, alpha rhythms show their greatest amplitude when / where?-Over posterior regions -During resting periods -When the subject closes their eyesBeta activity typically replaces which frequency activity during cognitive challenge?AlphaIs the SMR rhythm localized predominantly over the pre-motor cortex?NoWhat is a good conductor of electricity?MetalBiological signals like EEG and EMG travel through what?Interstitial fluidOne of the main criticisms body of research in support of neurofeedback is what?Too few studies with randomized controlled trialHas the amount of research being published regarding Neurofeedback has been steadily increasing in recent years?YesResearch has been published involving Neurofeedback for what diagnostic categories?-ADHD -Tourette's -Epilepsy -Anxiety -Depression -Addictive disorders -PTSDThe "Penniston Protocol" for addiction/PTSD uses what form of EEG biofeedback?Alpha/theta trainingThe Scott-Kaiser revision of the Penniston protocol involved what revision?Substitute beta/SMR training for temperature trainingIn the 2002 Monastra research how did the Neurofeedback group differ from the medication group once Neurofeedback training stopped in medication was discontinued?Only the neurofeedback group maintained the gains they had madeWhat significant findings emerged in the Levesque and Beauregard study after Neurofeedback training?-Significant differences between the neurofeedback and control group on free post measures -Increased activation in brain areas as measured by fMRIThe research that found increased gray matter in subjects who had received Neurofeedback training involved which research groups?Experimental, sham and controlLevel I - best support has been given to Neurofeedback for what?Attention and hyperactivity bxIn 2005 child and adolescent psychiatric clinics America found that EEG biofeedback met the criteria for clinical guidelines for the treatment of what?-ADHD -reading disabilities -anxiety / depression -seizure disorders -addictive disordersThe most significant research support for neurofeedback exists for what?-ADHD -seizure disorders -addictive disorders -PTSDIn regards to psychopharmacology, the EEG is recognized as being what?A non-invasive tool that can be used to evaluate the effects of drugsThe most common drug effect on the EEG involves what?Excess beta activity and a mild theta increasePrinciple changes in the EEG due to drugs include what?-Epileptiform activity -Increased theta and deltaAcute withdrawal of alcohol may elicit what?Bursts of spikes and polyspikesIn general, standard anti-epileptic drugs are known to do what?Increase power in the theta and delta bandsTypical antipsychotics are known to increase alpha activity and ________?Decrease percent time of betaRisperdal (an atypical antipsychotic) is known to do what?Not induce consistent changes in the waking state EEGThe main clinical actions of benzodiazepines can be described as what?-Anxiolytic -AnticonvulsantBenzodiazepines share a long list of adverse side effects including what?-Rebound anxiety -Anterograde amnesia -Rebound insomniaPsychostimulants are known to do what?Increase beta and alpha and decrease slow activityWhile it is not a contraindication to take medication and do neurofeedback training, it is important to always do what?Take into account, before and during training, the medications being takenIn addition to an intake interview, which of the following can contain useful information on which to base a Neurofeedback treatment plan?-Neuropsych screening -Questionnaires -Psychophysiological measuresThe Yerkes-Dodson curve depicts what?The relationship between arousal and efficiencyAccording to the arousal model, the key to performance is what?Being able to regulate arousalWhich of the following frequency ranges is most associated with being relaxed and neutral?AlphaEEG reflects activation of the what?CortexIn terms of arousal assessment, the three types of arousal are what?-Over aroused -Under aroused -Unstable arousalWhich problem is usually not associated with overarousal - being sensitive and shy, impatience, muscle tension, or sleep onset disorder?Shyness and sensitivityWhich problem is usually not associated with under-arousal - depression, low motivation, attention problems, or aggression?AggressionWhat is a clear symptom of unstable arousal?-Seizures -Migraines -Panic attacksUnstable arousal is characterized by what?-Small, predictable state shifts not related to arousal shifts -A narrow range where efficiency is maintained -Steep drop-off in efficiency with small shifts in arousalMost basic minimum assessments are typically done with one or two channel and what?Between one and five sitesThe mini-map suggested by Joel Lubar focused on the theta-beta ratio and was meant to address what?ADHDIs an EEG report by a neurologist is based on a visual inspection of the wave form?YesIs a qEEG report is based on an assessment of deviations from a data base?YesThe power of an EEG refers to what?The strength of the signal at a given frequency or frequency intervalTypical data derived from an EEG does not include what - spectral analysis, voltage, coherence, or symmetry?VoltageCoherence involves ____________ and comodulation involves ______________Coherence = phase Comodulation = magnitudeA statistically deviant result is usually defined as what?At least two standard deviations from the meanExcess theta activity does not reflect what?Deep sleepMu rhythms are typically seen at what points?C3 and C4Marijuana use commonly increases what brain wave?AlphaBeta activity reflects which of the following - internal focus, external focus, or a relaxed state?External focusEvent related potentials are acquired by what type of equipment?Standard EEG acquisition equipmentThe term P300 or P3 refers to what?A positive wave form happening about 300 ms after an eventWhose early research led to protocols to address seizures?Barry StermanWhose protocols are associated with Alpha/Theta training?Eugene PennistionArousal model early protocols involved what?Training SMR and/or betaIn the arousal model, at which sites would you train Beta?C3 and/or CZWhich of the following does not suggest under-arousal - tearing easily, lacking motivation, inattentiveness, or being easily bored?Easily boredWhich of the following does not suggest over-arousal - impatience, liking the effect of alcohol, snoring without apnea, being fidgety?Snoring without apneaPeople who are over-aroused are apt to have which of the following - low self esteem, many social conflicts, confused thinking, or spaciness?Social conflictsPeople who like the effect of caffeine are apt to be what?Under-arousedWhich of the following emotional states is not associated with over-arousal - anxiety, impatience, depression, or shame?DepressionSymptoms of unstable arousal do not include which of the following - hx of seizures, hx of migraines, hx of hyper-excitability, or bipolar symptoms?Hyper-excitabilityWhen training both hemispheres in a single session it is a good idea to end the session with training at what point?C4The following is not an example of possible instability - low emotional awareness, night sweats, panic attacks, or rages?Low emotional awarenessWhat symptoms are related to unstable arousal?-Binge eating -Suicidal thoughts -Dissociative symptomsAlpha training is most often done in what region?Parietal-occipitalWhat was one of the early revisions to the original arousal method?Training at frequency ranges other than SMR and betaHow are reward frequencies adjusted?Based on the client's response during training or following prior trainingIf a patient reports increased symptoms of over-arousal, you would consider which of the following - lowering the reward band, changing sites, or training for less time?All of the aboveRegarding EEG patterns, Jay Gunkelman has said "A small number of _________can describe the majority of ___________in the population."Endophenotypes, endophenotypesWhat may be considered when developing an individual treatment protocol - research articles, arousal method, or qEEG results?All of the aboveWhat is the most important thing to consider when contemplating a change in protocol?Patient response to prior trainingAside from client self-report, what else can be helpful in evaluating their response to training?-Clinical observation -Report from others -Pre-post measuresDo not assume that changes reported/observed in the client are due to the training if no other obvious explanation accounts for the change. T/FFalseInitial changes might be seen/reported when?Either within a session or between sessionsA good rule of thumb is to expect some type of effect within how many sessions?10According to the Monastra research, a Theta/Beta for a six or eleven year old is considered to be elevated if it is above what?2.3The recent review of the Theta/Beta literature suggests that the Theta/Beta ratio is not as diagnostic of ADHD as it was around the turn of the century because of what?Theta amplitude of normal population increasedThe major reason for the changes in the Theta/Beta ratio in the general population is hypothesized to be what?Decreased average sleep time in childrenIn a 13 year old boy, a Theta/Beta ratio of 5 is considered to be what?ElevatedWhat training does a Theta/Beta ratio of 5 suggest in the arousal model?C3 and/or Cz beta trainingIn the interest of being cautious and "doing no harm", a good idea is to do what?Train a few minutes at Cz to assess pt's sensitivity and response to trainingA person presenting with several symptoms of both over-arousal and under-arousal would be considered in the arousal model to have what?Unstable arousalWhen training a person with instabilities, two protocols to consider are what?C3 and C4, C3-C4qEEG results indicate an endophenotype of excess fast alpha, a possible training protocol would be what?PzSpike and wave activity is noted during the EEG recording, but the person does not report ever having had a seizure. The initial advice would be what?Recommend a neurological consultationWhich endophenotypes suggest including Alpha/Theta training at some point?Excess fast alpha, spindling excessive betaWhich endophenotypes (other than epileptiform) most warrant consideration for a medical referral - frontal asymmetries, low voltage fast, focal abnormalities or mixed fast/slow?Focal abnormalitiesThe definition of neurofeedback includes all but which of the following - sensors placed on scalp, devices used to provide moment by moment info, feedback being given about conscious brain activity, none of the abovefeedback given about conscious brain activityInformed consent should what?-provide pts with enough info to make an informed decision -allow time for questions -document obtained consentProgressive relaxation, relaxed breathing, etc. are possible ways to help the client achieve a pre-training state of being what?relaxed and focusedAreas in which one can focus to optimize training include what?sleep and exerciseA good nights sleep involves what?-generally falling asleep within 20 min -waking up and feeling refreshedA good goal is to engage in at least____minutes of physical activity/exercise at least_____days per week.30 minutes, 5 days per weekGood basic dietary practices include what?-eating breakfast -minimizing processed foods -ensuring protein, fruits, veggies and whole grainsFrom a purely brain help standpoint, the best use of alcohol/drugs involves what?abstinenceExcess use of video games, social media, internet sites, etc. as defined in most research is more than___hours per day on a regular basis.2Factors that have been found to have beneficial effects across therapeutic modalities are called what?Nonspecific therapeutic factorsA good therapeutic relationship is not important in Neurofeedback training since the training relies on technical devices and skills - true or false?FalseThe primary purpose of the therapeutic relationship is to what?Help the individual experience improvements in their lifeAll but which of the following is a way to facilitate a therapeutic relationship - help client feel heard, express your emotions directly, help client feel accepted, or instill reasonable expectations / hope?Express your emotions directlyWhat is an example of instilling reasonable expectations / hope with neurofeedback?I have known other people with similar concerns to yours that have been helped with neurofeedbackVerbal reinforcement is a form of what?CoachingIt is important to always assess a patient's response to the prior training in order to what?-make sure patient is engaged -determine if a protocol change is neededA good impedance level is what?< 5 kohmsA sequential or bipolar montage involves what?A ground electrode and two active electrodes on the scalpAlong with observation of the client, drowsiness will be noticeable when there is what?Increased slow activity in the EEG"Deep states" training is another name for what?Alpha-theta trainingIn Alpha-Theta training, sensors are typically placed at what points?Pz or OzAlpha-theta training is always done with what?Eyes closedThe term "crossover" in Alpha-Theta training refers to what?When the theta amplitude exceeds the alpha amplitudeFor alpha-theta training to be helpful, what has to happen with crossover?Crossover is seen as favorable but not essentialThe theory behind alpha-theta training can be best expressed as what?During a highly-relaxed twilight state, processing of memories and repressed emotions occursAlpha-theta sessions typically start with what?Reviewing a positive affirmation that has previously been developedContraindications to initiating alpha-theta training include what?-a generally disorganized EEG -an EEG characterized by diffused slowingThe Scott-Kaiser revision of the original Peniston Protocol involves what?Original sessions of beta/SMR trainingThere is a risk of _________ for clients doing alpha-theta training.AbreactionThere is limited research into the outcome rate that may be expected from home/remote training - true or false?TrueRemote training is not suggested for who?Inexperienced NFB providersRemote/home training should always be preceded by what?A complete history and evaluationThe supervising clinician must adequately train the remote trainer in what areas?-Understanding NFB process -equipment orientation -sensor placementWith remote training it is important to do what?Schedule regular consultation servicesIt should be made clear that the remote trainer is allowed to train themselves in addition to the designated patient if they choose to do so - true or false?FalseHow have single channel training programs expanded since the initial SMR/Beta training along the central strip?-training is now done at various 10-20 sites -training is now done rewarding a variety of frequency ranges -training is now done with interhemispheric montagesWhat type of training has the use of multiple channels facilitated?-coherence training -comodulation trainingWhere has most of the slow cortical potential research and training occurred?EuropeWhat is necessary as part of the software in order to do Z-score training?A built-in databaseWhat problem does Loreta analysis address?InverseInfra-low frequency training trains what frequency range?<.5 HzHEG training involves what?An infrared sensor on the foreheadHEG biofeedback was originally developed to treat what?Migraine headachesLENS training does not introduce an electrical signal to the brain - true or false?FalsePulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy was originally used toPromote healing in the bodyIn vulnerable patients, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may do what?Induce seizuresWhat form of neuromodulation sends a low direct current into the brain?tDCSWhat forms of peripheral biofeedback can be combined with EEG biofeedback?-EMG -HRV -temperature