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Biology Lab Reviews Animalia
Terms in this set (118)
1. List the characteristics of kingdom Animalia.
eukaryotic & multicellular (cells not surrounded by cell walls!) heterotrophic lack a cell wall composed of specialized tissues which arise from three germ layers usually motile diploid and reproduce sexually
2. Know the directional terms listed on page 78; apply them to both the cat and human skeleton.
3. Identify the bones of the human skeleton (do not worry about bones of the cat skeleton).
4. Contrast terms relating to symmetry: asymmetrical vs. radial vs. bilateral.
no symmetry VS. symmetry from a central point VS. symmetry along one axis
5. Define cephalization. With which type of symmetry is it associated?
an evolutionary trend towards the concentration of sensory structures (antennae, eyes, etc) at the anterior end of a bilateral animal
6. Contrast the germ layers: endoderm vs. ectoderm vs. mesoderm
1. endoderm - forms lining of the digestive tube // 2. ectoderm - forms the outer covering of an animal (& sometimes the central nervous system) // 3. mesoderm - produces muscle & remaining tissues & organs
7. Contrast terms: diploblastic vs. triploblastic
diploblastic - "2 tissues" - only develop endoderm & ectoderm // VS. // triploblastic - "3 tissues" - have mesoderm between the endoderm and ectoderm
8. Contrast body plans and label each accordingly: acoelomate vs. pseudocoelomate vs. coelomate
Acoelomates - lack a body cavity; solid mass of tissue //VS.// Pseudocoelomates - have a "false cavity"; have a hollow cavity filled with fluid that is not completely lined by mesoderm //VS// Coelomates - have a true body cavity that is completely lined with mesoderm
9. List example organisms with each type of body plan.
Acoelomates - Ex: flatworms // Psuedo - Ex roundworms // Coelom - Ex: mollusks, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms & chordates
10. List characteristics of phylum Porifera.
simplest animals as the body consists of a loose colony of organized cells live in marine or aquatic habitats cell types: amoebocytes, choanocytes, porocytes & epidermal cells sessile (grow attached to rocks, corals, shells, etc) suspension feeders water enters through porocytes, exits via osculum spicules (calcium or silica) or a fibrous protein framework determine a sponge's shape and texture
11. Label the sponge illustration; know the function of each structure.
12. Contrast sponge cell types (structure and function): porocytes vs. choanocytes vs. amoebocytes
porocytes - water comes in // VS// chaonocytes - collect/move water around //VS// delivering nutrients from choano. to others
13. List the characteristics of phylum Cnidaria.
radially symmetrical diploblastic (have only contractile cells - no muscles!) incomplete digestive system have a single opening (mouth) through which food enters and wastes leave gastrovascular cavity for digestion, support, gas exchange & excretion simple nervous system in the form of a nerve net cnidocytes (stinging cells) for prey capture & defense two growth forms: polyp and/or medusa
14. Contrast growth forms: polyp vs. medusa
sessile VS. "normal" jellyfish, can move
15. Label the Hydra illustration/model; know the function of each structure.
16. Contrast the polyps of Obelia: feeding polyps vs. reproductive polyps
tentacles surrounding mouth VS. prod. tiny medusae by asexual budding
17. Review the general events of the Obelia life cycle.
reproductive polyp - male/female medusa - sperm/egg - fertilization - zygote - embryo - ciliated planula larva - young colony - back to Hydra as feeding polyp
18. List the characteristics of phylum Platyhelminthes.
bilateral symmetry with cephalization dorso-ventrally flattened triploblastic & acoelomate (true muscles for improved locomotion!) incomplete digestive system (single opening called the mouth) gastrovascular cavity for digestion nervous system: simple brain, longitudinal nerves, transverse nerves
19. Label the Planaria illustration/model; know the function of each structure.
20. Review the events of the pork tapeworm life cycle.
Person ingests infected pork - Adult tapeworm develops in small intestine - Tapeworm produces gravid proglottids with eggs - Pigs become infected by eating vegetation contaminated by eggs or gravid proglottids - Cysts develop within skeletal muscle
21. Contrast terms: intermediate host vs. final host
pig vs. human
22. Be able to identify all organisms/specimens by common name (& genus name if provided) and the phylum to which they belong if shown a slide, illustration, model, or picture.
23. Be able to identify all labeled structures on the models, illustrations, and slides. Know function of labeled structures.
1. List characteristics of phylum Nematoda.
bilaterally symmetrical • triploblastic, cylinderical worms with tapered ends • pseudocoelomate • complete digestive system (digestive tract with two openings: mouth & anus); food moves in one direction through the tract • body wall contains longitudinal muscles, the epidermis & a protective cuticle • most are dioecious • most are free-living; others endoparasites
2. Contrast incomplete digestive tract vs. complete digestive tract
one opening /VS. /digestive tract with two openings: mouth & anus); food moves in one direction through the tract
3. Understand how humans become infected with the parasitic nematodes mentioned in the lab summary/lab manual.
pinworm - not washing hands well // trichina - eating infected meat: bears, swine, rats, human // ascaris - usually when human feces used as fertilizer
4. Contrast a male ascaroid vs. female ascaroid
smaller w posterior hook VS. larger/longer
5. Be able to identify all nematode specimens by common name and scientific name if shown a slide, illustration, or picture.
6. Know the general characteristics of the nematode specimens presented in the lab summary/lab manual.
7. List characteristics of phylum Mollusca.
bilaterally symmetrical, soft-bodied invertebrates • degree of cephalization varies between groups • coelomate protostomes • complete digestive system with regional specializtion • 3 basic parts to mollusk body: - foot - muscular organ used for locomotion - mantle - tissue that drapes over visceral mass; secretes shell (if present) - visceral mass ("guts") - includes internal organs & coelomic cavity • open circulatory system (hemolymph directly bathes cells & tissues) • gas exchange occurs across gills • most have a radula (an accessory feeding structure)
8. Explain how cephalization varies between the four molluscan groups.
chitons - reduced / gastropods - pronounced / cephalopods - high degree / bivalves - reduced
9. List and explain the significance of the three basic body parts (regions) of a mollusk.
foot - muscular organ used for locomotion / mantle - tissue that drapes over visceral mass; secretes shell (if present) / visceral mass ("guts") - includes internal organs & coelomic cavity
10. Be able to identify all mollusk specimens by common name if shown an illustration or picture.
11. Know the general characteristics of the mollusk specimens presented in the lab summary/lab summary.
12. List the reasons as to why cephalopods are considered 'advanced mollusks'.
predatory, marine organisms with a well-developed central nervous system • high degree of cephalization with large eyes, beak-like jaws, • closed circulatory system supporting a higher metabolism • chromatophores • foot modified into tentacles
13. Explain the significance of chromatophores to cephalopods.
pigmented cells capable of color changes that allow for camouflaging, communication or prey capture
14. Label the bivalve (clam) model and relate it to the labeled illustration; know the function of each structure.
15. Identify the external anatomy of a bivalve (clam), including the application of directional terms: dorsal, ventral, anterior and posterior.
16. Label the internal anatomy of a clam dissection specimen.
1. List characteristics of phylum Annelida.
bilateral symmetry referred to as "segmented worms" because of metamerism coelomate protostomes complete digestive system with a great deal of regional specialization closed circulatory system most with pronounced cephalization & central nervous system (CNS) metanephridia for metabolic waste removal gas exchange occurs across epidermis
2. Define metamerism and explain its significance in animal evolution.
segmented lines - locomotion
3. Describe the feeding habits of a leech; include the role of hirudin.
aquatic and marine ectoparasites produce anticoagulant (hirudin) for free-flowing blood meal lack parapodia and chaetae
4. Explain the importance of parapodia in polychaetes (clamworms).
aid in locomotion & increased surface area for cutaneous respiration
5. Contrast the presence/absence of chaetae in leeches vs. clamworms vs. earthworms
absent VS. many VS. few
6. Describe the role of the clitellum in sexual reproduction of an earthworm.
allows for cross fertilization & secretes egg cocoon
7. Label the external anatomy of an earthworm; know the function of each structure.
8. Label the internal anatomy of an earthworm; know the function of each structure.
9. Be able to identify all annelid specimens by common name if shown a slide, illustration, or picture.
10. Know the general characteristics of the leeches, clamworms and earthworms presented in the lab summary/lab manual.
aquatic and marine ectoparasites produce anticoagulant (hirudin) for free-flowing blood meal lack parapodia and chaetae /// higher degree of cephalization than leeches have parapodia with lots of chaetae ("bristles") parapodia aid in locomotion & increased surface area for cutaneous respiration /// few chaetae; lack parapodia epidermis with mucus (keeps worm moist, allowing for gas exchange) clitellum allows for cross fertilization & secretes egg cocoon
11. List characteristics of phylum Arthropoda.
bilateral symmetry improved segmentation "jointed appendages" (are specialized for various functions) exoskeleton of chitin must undergo molting (ecdysis) coelomate protostomes w/ pronounced cephalization well developed CNS, digestive system & open circulatory system gas exchange may occur via tracheal tubes, gills, book lungs
12. Explain why arthropods must undergo ecdysis.
molting - shed old cuticle/grow
13. Identify the tagmata associated with each arthropod group.
Chelicerates - cepahlothorax, abdomen / Crustaceans - cephalothorax & abdomen / Myriapods - head and abdomen
14. Contrast chelicerae vs. mandibles
fang-like VS. jaw-like
15. Be able to identify all arthropod specimens by common name if shown an illustration, slide, or picture.
16. Know the general characteristics of each arthropod group (trilobites, chelicerates, crustaceans, myriapods, or hexapods) presented in the lab summary/lab summary; know example organisms for each.
1. Trilobites believed to have been first arthropods all marine went extinct ~250 mya // 2. Chelicerates - horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks & scorpions two tagmata: cephalothorax & abdomen 1st pair of appendages are "fang-like" mouthparts called chelicerae 4 pair of walking legs // 3. Crustaceans - crabs, shrimp, crayfish & barnacles gill-breathing arthropods with biramous appendages have a cephalothorax & abdomen 1st pair of appendages are "chewing" mouthparts called mandibles two pair of antennae // 4. Myriapods - centipedes & millipedes two tagmata: head & abdomen mandibles single pair of antennae
17. Contrast incomplete vs. complete metamorphosis
incomplete - nymph/adult look similar, just matured no pupa stage VS. different larva and adult w pupa stage
18. Label the external anatomy of the horseshoe crab; know the function of each structure.
19. Label the external anatomy of the crayfish; know the function of each structure.
20. Contrast the external anatomy of a male crayfish vs. female crayfish.
first pair or swimmerettes are hard and extended in male
1. List characteristics of phylum Echinodermata.
all marine organisms coelomate deuterostomes with reduced cephalization (as adults) complete digestive system bilateral larvae develop into pentaradial adults nervous system consists of nerve ring with radial nerves (no brain!) endoskeleton of calcareous plates, spines & ossicles unique feature water vascular system (used for locomotion, foraging, gas-exchange & removal of metabolic wastes) ability to regenerate have mutable connective tissue (enables the hardening/softening of tissues)
2. Compare body symmetry in a larval echinoderm with that of an adult echinoderm.
bilateral larvae develop into pentaradial adults
3. List the functions of the water vascular system.
used for locomotion, foraging, gas-exchange & removal of metabolic wastes
4. Know the general characteristics (including morphology and feeding strategy) of the sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers and sea stars presented in the lab summary/lab manual.
1. Sea urchins pronounced movable spines used for defense & burrowing rounded, disc-shaped bodies herbivores (feed on algae) //// 2. Sand dollars lack elongated spines flattened bodies covered with short spines and tube feet feed on detritus /// 3. Sea cucumbers lack the obvious endoskeleton elongated, soft bodies with rows of tube feet for locomotion oral tentacles surround mouth; aid in food collection defense mechanism evisceration (forcefully eject their organs) /// 4. Sea Stars have 5 arms that radiate from a central disk oral side: mouth & tube feet (underneath) aboral side: anus & madreporite (top side) endoskeletal spines protrude through epidermis dioecious carnivorous predators that eat bivalves by everting the cardiac stomach into the bivalve
5. Explain the means in which sea cucumbers may defend themselves.
evisceration (forcefully eject their organs)
6. Label the external anatomy of a sea star; know the function of each structure.
7. Label the internal anatomy of a sea star; know the function of each structure.
8. Trace the path of sea water through the water vascular system (be able to label the structures).
9. Be able to identify all echinoderm specimens by common name if shown an illustration or picture.
10. List characteristics of phylum Chordata.
bilateral symmetrical coelomate deuterostomes with a closed circulatory system complete digestive system with some degree of metamerism all chordates possess four main characteristics: the "Big 4" • notochord • pharyngeal clefts (slits) • dorsal, hollow nerve cord • post-anal tail
11. Explain the significance of each of the "big 4 chordate characteristics'.
notochord - supportive rod of cartilage runs longitudinally /• pharyngeal clefts (slits) - series/pair in pharynx •/ dorsal, hollow nerve cord - portion of CNS located dorsal to notochord, runs longitudinally thru length of animal, hollow and filled w fluid •/ post-anal tail - extension of body beyond anus
12. List the three main groups (subphyla) of phylum Chordata.
Urochordata Cephalochordata Craniata (formerly known as Vertebrates)
13. Compare the 'big 4 chordate characteristics' in a larval sea squirt with that of an adult sea squirt.
only the larval stage has the "Big 4" characteristics adults have highly reduced cephalization and only retain the pharyngeal slits
14. Explain how the lancelets obtain nutrition.
marine filter feeders
15. Label the external anatomy of the lancelet; know the function of each structure.
16. Label the internal anatomy of the lancelet; know the function of each structure.
17. Be able to identify all urochordate and cephalochordate specimens by common name if shown an illustration, model, or picture.
18. Know the general characteristics of urochordates and cephalochordates presented in the lab summary/lab summary.
Subphylum Urochordata - sea squirts (tunicates) only the larval stage has the "Big 4" characteristics adults have highly reduced cephalization and only retain the pharyngeal slits filter-feeders /// Subphylum Cephalochordata - lancelets marine filter feeders adult clearly exhibits the "Big 4" characteristics
1. List characteristics of subphylum Craniata.
High degree of cephalization Development of the cranium surrounding the brain Neural crest - mass of ectoderm which forms during embryological development leading to the formation of: central nervous system, sensory structures associated with the head portions of the cranium teeth
2. Explain the significance of the neural crest cells.
mass of ectoderm which forms during embryological development leading to the formation of: central nervous system, sensory structures associated with the head portions of the cranium teeth
3. Explain the significance of the evolution of vertebrae.
Skeletal elements develop around the notochord • Made from cartilage or bone • Functions - protection for spinal cord and muscle attachment • More developed cranium enclosing the brain
4. Contrast the terms: agnathan vs. gnathostome
lack jaws VS. have jaws
5. List organisms classified as agnathans; list organisms classified as gnathostomes.
hagfish, lampreys /// sharks, ray-fin and lobe-fin fish, etc
6. Name all the vertebrate groups that are osteichthyans.
bony vertebrates - ray-finned fish, lobe-finned, tetrapods (amph, rept, mamm)
7. List organisms that retain the notochord as adults.
hagfish and lampreys
8. Contrast the feeding habits of hagfish and lampreys.
marine scavengers that use oral tentacles to scavenge for food / VS. / Oral sucker used in feeding Parasites as adults
9. Describe the characteristics/adaptations of the cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) that enabled them to evolve into successful predators.
jaws/teeth, keen vision and olfaction, lateral line system and electroreceptors, heterocercal fins
10. Describe the characteristics/adaptations of the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) that enabled them to evolve into a diverse vertebrate group.
Fins are soft with spiny rays of bone for improved directional control Operculum present; a bony plate covering gills for ventilation and protection
11. Describe the similarities and differences of the lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii) to that of the rayfinned fish.
SIMILAR - Operculum Swim bladder Lateral line system /// DIFFERENT - Fins with larger, more prominent skeletal structures for support; are supported by very thick muscles resulting often in a "stubby" appearance
12. Contrast the terms: heterocercal caudal fin vs. homocercal caudal fin. List fish with each type.
hetero - different sized (shark tail fin) // homo - same sized (fish tail fin)
13. Contrast sensory structures: lateral line system vs. ampullae of Lorenzini
LLS - sense vibrations in water around // Amp.L. - electrical impulse senses
14. Contrast how respiration occurs in the cartilaginous fish vs. the bony fish.
have to keep swimming to not sink/keep water flowing over gills /VS/ operculum, don't have to move all the time
15. Know those craniates with a cartilaginous endoskeleton and those with a bony endoskeleton.
sharks, rays, hagfish, lampreys /// ray-finned, lobe-finned, tetrapods
16. Explain the purpose of the swim bladder; list those fish that possess a swim bladder.
keep fish afloat while still - ray-finned and lobe-finned
17. Label the external anatomy of a ray-finned fish; know the function of each structure.
18. Label the internal anatomy of a ray-finned fish; know the function of each structure.
19. Be able to identify all fish specimens by common name/classification if shown an illustration, model, or picture.
20. Know the general characteristics of the hagfish, lamprey, cartilaginous fish, ray-finned fish, and lobe-finned fish presented in the lab summary/lab manual.
Hagfish (Myxini) marine scavengers that use oral tentacles to scavenge for food small, reduced eyes mucus glands for protection endoskeleton of cartilage with an incomplete cranium notochord retained in the adults agnathan - term used to describe a jawless craniate //// Lamprey (Petromyzontida) Agnathan (lack true jaws) Oral sucker used in feeding Parasites as adults Keratinized teeth & rasping tongue used to penetrate body of prey Cartilage endoskeleton Notochord is retained in the adults //// Cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) Includes sharks, skates and rays Cartilage endoskeleton Well developed jaws with teeth (modified scales with hardened enamel) Ventrally located mouth Paired pectoral and pelvic fins Placoid scales Keen vision & olfaction Lateral line system for detecting vibrations in the water Ampullae of Lorenzini as electrical sensing pits Heterocercal caudal fin (upper lobe much different than lower lobe) Cloaca present; common opening to the digestive tract, excretory system & reproductive tract ///// Ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) Includes trout, redfish, goldfish, carp, seahorse, etc (most fish!) Fins are soft with spiny rays of bone for improved directional control Operculum present; a bony plate covering gills for ventilation and protection Epidermal glands secrete mucus for protection Swim bladder for buoyancy control Lateral line system Homocercal caudal fin ///// Lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii) Includes lungfish & coelacanths Fins with larger, more prominent skeletal structures for support; are supported by very thick muscles resulting often in a "stubby" appearance Operculum Swim bladder Lateral line system
1. List characteristics of all tetrapods.
vertebrates with paired, muscular pectoral and pelvic limbs that possess digits on their distal ends Evolved from lobe-finned fish Have lungs for gas exchange in a terrestrial environment Have additional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle centered on reproductive strategies and preventing dehydration Bony endoskeleton that is divided into the axial (bones of skull & vertebral column) and appendicular (bones of pectoral and pelvic girdles) regions
2. Contrast: axial skeleton vs. appendicular skeleton
skull/backbone VS. torso/pelvis
3. Compare the homology between various tetrapod limbs as shown in the lab manual.
4. Describe the characteristics/adaptations of the amphibians that earned them the name of "transitional vertebrates".
tadpoles/young live in water, adult terrestrial - anamniotic egg (3 cham heart)
5. Describe the characteristics/adaptations of the reptiles that enabled them to be the first true terrestrial vertebrates.
amniotic egg - scales/keratinized, and developed lungs/heart (3 cham w septum)
6. List the unique characteristics observed in mammals.
Endothermic with body covered with hair (tactile senses, protection, thermoregulation) Mammary glands for milk production Heterodont dentition (incisors, canines, premolars & molars) 4-chambered heart Enucleated red blood cells (RBCs) Muscular diaphragm to aid in lung ventilation Ossicles - three tiny ear bones for hearing (malleus, incus & stapes) Most give live birth
7. Contrast the terms: anamniotic egg vs. amniotic egg
needs water, jelly-like VS terrestrial, shell
8. List organisms classified as amniotes.
reptiles and mammals
9. Contrast the terms: ectotherm vs. endotherm. List organisms categorized as each.
body temp correlates to environment (fish/sharks/amph/reptiles) VS. body temp regulated by metabolism (birds/mammals)
10. Explain the importance of cutaneous respiration in the amphibians.
weak lungs and 3 cham heart, extra respiration
11. Contrast the external morphology (skin, scales, claws) of an amphibian to that of a reptile.
Smooth, scale-less skin; digits lack claws // Skin covered with keratinized scales or feathers; claws on digits
12. Contrast the terms: homodont dentition vs. heterodont dentition
same shape, diff size VS. diff shape and sizes
13. Amphibians and traditional reptiles both have a 3-chambered heart; however, reptiles have a more advanced design. Explain.
reptiles have a incomplete interventricular septum which helps prevent some mixing of ox. and deox. blood
14. Archaeopteryx is a transitional fossil linking birds to reptiles (theropod dinosaurs). List characteristics that are reptilian; list characteristics that are avian (bird-like).
reptile - claws, scales, teeth, tail w vertebrae // bird - feathers
15. List the adaptations in birds that enable flight.
forelimbs modified into wings, hollow bones, reduced bone number/fusion of bones to reduce weight, keeled sternum, lack teeth, efficient lungs, lack bladder, reduced reproductive system
16. Label the teeth of a vertebrate skull; know how teeth vary in their function.
incisors, canines - chew meat / premolars & molars - veggies/other
17. Label the external anatomy of a frog; know the function of each structure.
18. Label the internal anatomy of a frog; know the function of each structure.
19. Be able to identify amphibian specimens (frogs, toads, and salamanders) by common name/classification if shown an illustration or picture.
20. Be able to identify reptile specimens (crocodiles, turtles, snakes, lizards, and birds) by common name/classification if shown an illustration or picture.
21. Be able to identify mammal specimens by common name/classification if shown an illustration or picture.
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