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Terms in this set (29)
What one thing can you always calculate from survey data which will help you get some idea of how close your estimate is to the true population value?
The accuracy or the amount of bias
The precision or the amount of sampling error
The precision or the amount of sampling error
This result showing good precision means that we are absolutely certain that the survey result is very close to the true population value. (T/F)
False
Suppose the risk ratio in the source population is 3.0, whereas the risk ratio in the study population is 1.2. Then the study is not internally valid.
False
It depends
True
It depends
Systematic error occurs whenever there is any (non-zero) difference between the value of the effect measure in the source population and the estimate from the sample. (T/F)
False
The estimated effect measure in the (study) sample is always equal to the corresponding effect measure in the study population. (T/F)
False
If the estimated RR equals 2.7 in the sample and it is determined that there is a bias away from the null, then the RR in the source population is greater than 2.7. (T/F)
False
If the estimated RR in the sample is 1.1 and it is determined that there is bias away from the null, then there is essentially no association in the source population. (T/F)
True
If the OR equals 3.6 in the source population and 1.3 in the study population, then the bias is ______.
A. Away from the null
B. Switchover
C. Towards the null
Towards the null
If the RR is 4.0 in the source population and 0.9 in the study population, then the bias is ______.
A. Away from the null
B. Switchover
C. Towards the null
Switchover
If the RR is 1 in the source population and 0.77 in the study population, then the bias is ______.
A. Away from the null
B. Switchover
C. Towards the null
Away from the null
What one thing can you always calculate from survey data which will help you get some idea of how close your estimate is to the true population value?
The accuracy or the amount of bias
The precision or the amount of sampling error
The precision or the amount of sampling error
In a study of oral contraceptive (OC) use and hypertension, male interviewers for the study found a lower prevalence of OC use among participants than did female interviewers using the same questionnaire. Which term best describes this finding?
a) Selection bias
b) Differential misclassification
c) Nondifferential misclassification
c) Nondifferential misclassification
In a case-control study of computer display exposure and glaucoma, cases and controls were also asked about television watching habits. Errors in recall of exposure to video screens occurred with equal frequency among cases and controls. Which one of the following biases likely occurred?
a) Selection bias
b) Ecologic fallacy
c) Nondifferential misclassification
d) Differential misclassification
c) Nondifferential misclassification
In a case-control study of obesity and adult-onset asthma, controls are matched to cases on the basis of race and gender. This approach to selection is intended to decrease the influence of which type of bias?
a) Selection bias
b) Ecologic fallacy
c) Information bias
d) Misclassification
e) Confounding
e) Confounding
Confounding is a _____ in a _____ that may arise because we fail to _____ other variables that are previously known _____ for the health outcome being studied.
distortion, measure of effect, control for, risk factors
We use ______ to assess whether the population parameter is different from the null value
hypothesis testing
When determining the precision of a point-estimate, ______ accounts for sampling variability.
interval estimation
______ looks for rare or unlikely results.
hypothesis testing
By looking at the most likely results, ______ finds those values that we are confident lie close to the population parameter
interval estimation
The ______ gives the risk we are willing to take for rejecting the hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.
significance level
The ______ can be either upper-one-sided, lower-one-sided or two-sided.
alternative hypothesis
If the computed value of the test statistic falls into the ______, we reject the ______ and conclude that the results are ______ significant.
rejection region, null hypothesis, statistically
The ______ describes how rare or how unlikely are the observed results of one's study under the ______.
P- value, null hypothesis
If the P-value satisfies the inequality p>.30, we should ______ the null hypothesis.
not reject
If the P-value satisfies the inequality P < .005, we should reject the null hypothesis at the ______ significance level, but not at the ______ level.
0.1, 0.001
A large-sample 95% confidence interval for the difference in two proportions adds and subtracts from the estimated difference in the two proportions 1.96 times the ______ of the estimated difference.
estimated standard error
The ______ of a confidence interval may vary from sample to sample.
upper limit
For a ______ confidence interval, the probability is 0.95 that the interval between the upper and lower bounds includes the true population parameter
95%
The true population parameter might actually lie outside a 95% confidence interval, but there is only a ______ chance of this happening.
5%
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