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MICROB FINAL DISEASES
Terms in this set (38)
clostridium difficile; group of microbe?
unique symptom of C. Difficle?
nercrotizing enterocolitis (premies)
neutropenic enterocolitis (cancer therapies)
Cdifficle: Infections begin with focal necrosis, then ulceration with exudate, and can progress to ___________-, which involves inflammation of the colon and the development of a pseudomembrane of fibrin containing dead epithelial cells and leukocytes
what areas are affected C. Difficle?
perforation of the colon
how is the diagnosis of C. Difficle confirmed?
treatment for C. Difficle
stop antibiotic use and them provide supportive therapy with electrolyte replacement and fluids
species in what gene are gram-positive, endospore-forming rods that are obligate anaerobes?
unique symptoms of tetanus?
different names for tetanus
-wounds head or face
what are treatment methods for patients with tetanus?
s assisted breathing through the use of a ventilator, wound debridement, fluid balance, and antibiotic therapy with metronidazole or penicillin to halt the growth of C. tetani
different types of botulism?
wound botulism, infant botulism, and adult intestinal toxemia.
how is botulism spread?
food borne (most common)
unique symptoms of botulism
muscle relaxation and eventually paralysis
(early) blurred vision, drooping eyelids, difficulty swallowing
treatment for botulism
The endocardium is a tissue layer that lines the muscles and valves of the heart. This tissue can become infected by a variety of bacteria, including gram-positive cocci such as:
Sbacterial endocarditis and pericarditis
subacute bacterial endocarditis: patches of tissue-associated bacteria
diagnosis of infective endocarditis is determined by what
using the combination of blood cultures, echocardiogram, and clinical symptoms.
sub/acute endocarditis treatment is
high doses of intravenous antibiotics
acute endocarditis is often treated with a comination of
f ampicillin, nafcillin, and gentamicin for synergistic coverage of Staphylococcus spp
prosthetic-valve endocarditis is often treated with what
of vancomycin, rifampin, and gentamicin.
Staphylcoccus spp. and Streptococcus spp. can also infect and cause inflammation in the tissues surrounding the heart, a condition called ______________
pericardits is marked by what symptoms?
chest pain, difficulty breathing, and a dry cough.
what is used to diagnose acute pericarditis
a chest radiograph, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, aspirate of pericardial fluid, or biopsy of pericardium
what parts of the body does impetigo cause formation of vesicles, pustules, and possibly bullae around?
the nose and mouth
unique symptoms of impetigo
bullae (large blisters)
how can impetigo be diagnosed?
nonbullous or bullous
what type of impetigo are the vesicles and pustules rupture and become encrusted sores. Typically the crust is yellowish, often with exudate draining from the base of the lesion
what type of impetigo do the bullae fill and rupture, resulting in larger, draining, encrusted lesions?
what can impetigo be caused by?
S. aureus alone, by Streptococcus pyogenes alone, or by coinfection of S. aureus and S. pyogenes. I
what is used to diagnose impetigo?
hrough observation of its characteristic appearance, although culture and susceptibility testing may also be used
what is used to treat impetigo
topical or oral antibiotic
impetigo caused by s.pyogenes can lead to serious issues like acute glomerulonephritis which is what?
severe inflammation in the kidneys
listeriosis can cause what in pregnant women?
L. monocytogens is caused how that leads to infection of GI tract?
ingestion of contaminated food
l.monocytogenes is identified by the ____ of samples from a normally sterile site
Distinguishing types and subtypes of L. monocytogenes—an important step for diagnosis and epidemiology—is typically done using _____________ Identification can also be achieved using chemiluminescence DNA probe assays and MALDI-TOF.
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
treatment for listerosis involved antibiotic therapy most commonly with
ampicillin and gentamicin
how is s. aureus contracted?
skin to skin contact (chronic nasal carriers)
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