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Politics of the United States
Government Final Review
Terms in this set (51)
• Virginia and New Jersey Plans
Virginia plan wanted representation in government to be based on population which would give them a lot of influence. New Jersey plan suggested that every state send the same number of representatives no matter the population, so that one state couldn't control government.
• Federalists and Anti Federalists
Anti-Federalists wanted states' rights, bill of rights, unanimous consent, reference to religion, more power to less-rich and common people; Federalists wanted strong central government, more power to experienced, separation of church and state, stated that national government would protect individual rights
• Stamp Act and Sugar Acts
On March 22, 1765, the British Parliament passed the "Stamp Act" to help pay for British troops stationed in the colonies during the Seven Years' War. The act required the colonists to pay a tax, represented by a stamp, on various forms of papers, documents, and playing cards. he American Revenue Act of 1764, so called Sugar Act, was a law that attempted to curb the smuggling of sugar and molasses in the colonies by reducing the previous tax rate and enforcing the collection of duties.
• Types of governments
Democracy, Monarchy, Anarchy, Republic, Reprensenative Democracy, Dictatorship
• Declaration of Independence
Signed in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free state.
• Inalienable rights
Found in the Declaration of Independence. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. These rights cannot be taken away.
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
A nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state
• Types of government powers
enumerated (Only federal), reserved (powers retained by the states), concurrent (shared by the state and feds).
• Types of federalism
• State's rights
the rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government.
• Important clauses in the US Constitution
Examples in First Amendment - Establishment Clause,
Free Exercise Clause,
Free Speech Clause,
Free Press Clause,
Free Assembly Clause,
• Tools of federal power
monetary - The Fed can use four tools to achieve its monetary policy goals: the discount rate, reserve requirements, open market operations, and interest on reserves.
• Presidential power
Power to appoint cabinet members, diplomats and ambassadors, judges
Power to make treaties - formal agreement between two or more sovereign state
Executive Agreement - pacts between the President and the heads of foreign states
Recognition - President can acknowledge the legal existence of a country and its government
• Checks and balances between the branches of government
counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups. /// EXAMPLES - The House of Representatives has sole power of impeachment, but the Senate has all power to try any impeachment.
Any bills that intend to raise revenue must originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate also has to approve the bill.
Congress has the power to set and collect any taxes or duties
• The impeachment process
1. House passes articles of impeachment by majority
2. Senate tries and 2/3 must convict
• War Powers Resolution
A law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval.
• Congressional oversight
The United States Congress has the authority to conduct hearings, investigations, and budget reviews of the actions by the executive branch.
• Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
• Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
• Congressional checks on the President
Controls money requests
Can override president's veto
Can impeach and convict
• Congressional leadership
Leaders in Congress, usually the minority and majority speakers.
• Presidential appointment power
1. Need Senate Approval for appointments of Ambassadors, Federal Judges, and Officers of US 2.Inferior Officers & Independent Counsel - Congress may allow the Pres to appoint w/o Senate approval.
a. BUT Congress may not give itself or its officers the Appt Pwr
• Incumbents and challengers
a candidate running for reelection to a position that he or she already holds.
• Types of representation
Delegate - a representative who votes according to the preferences of their constituency /// Trustee - a representative who votes based on what they think is best for their constituency /// Sociological - type of representation in which reps. have the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents /// Agency - type of representation in which reps. are held accountable if they fail to represent their constituency properly; when the rep. and constituents are not that similar (like socio.)
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue.
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
• Types executive bureaucratic agencies and departments
independent agency - not a part of the Cabinet department/set up by Congress outside that structure /// Regulatory agency - imposes limits, restrictions, etc. on the conduct of individuals/companies in private sector
• Political parties
organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices
• How interest groups influence government
educate their members on policy issues and mobilize members for elections and grassroots lobbying efforts using social media, email lists, news reports, etc. They lobby members of Congress and the executive, providing info to them about interests/policies, and testify at hearings, and have private meetings
• Collective goods
Goods that are collectively produced and freely available for anyone's consumption.
• Party activists and members
Activists - partisans who contribute time, energy, and effort to support party/candidates. /// Members - people who vote for consistently/align with beliefs
• Free riders and selective benefits
Free riders - those who enjoy the benefits of collective goods but did not participate in acquiring or providing them; for example, some ppl providing money for a community pool, but everyone can use it /// Selective benefits - Goods (such as information publications, travel discounts, and group insurance rates) that a group can restrict to those who pay their annual dues
• Types of elections
primary and general
• Types of primaries
closed, open, blanket
• Presidential elections
an election held every four years on even-numbered years
• The Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution
• Habeas Corpus
Constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment
• Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal. "separate but equal"
• Brown v. Board of Education
1954 case that overturned Separate but Equal standard of discrimination in education.
• Establishment and Free-exercise
The First Amendment states: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." The establishment clause stops the government from favoring a religion while the free exercise clause allows people to express their religion.
• Privacy rights
Liberties protected by several amendments in the Bill of Rights that shield certain personal aspects of citizens' lives from governmental interference, such as the Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures.
• Rights of criminal defendants
Some rights are lined out in Article I of the Constitution
Writs of habeas corpus
Ex post facto laws
Bills of attainder
The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments supplement these rights
• Freedom of thought
is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints
• New Deal
The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression
A doctrine under which certain federal laws preempt, or take precedence over, conflicting state or local laws.
• Early US foreign policy
Land disputes with Great Britain and Spain, Naval war with France and Official war with Great Britain for two years.
• The Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
• Economic theories
Supply Side Economics
• Types of taxes
progressive, proportional, regressive
• Types of government assistance
federal and state
Recommended textbook explanations
Magruder's American Government
United States Government: Our Democracy
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy
Magruder's American Government (Texas)
Daniel M. Shea
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