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Terms in this set (54)
All are part of a nucleotide except—
Fatty acid tail
What does transformation involve in bacteria?
assimilation of external DNA into a cell
The pyramidine bases in DNA are
Cytosine and thymine
A major difference between DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is
There is only one replication origin in prokaryotes
because DNA Polymerase III can only act from 5' to 3', continuous strand growth can be achieved only along the leading strand and strand growth among other strand must occur discontinuously resulting in the production of a series of short sections of new DNA called
What might the consequence of a deficiency of DNA Ligase is
Failure of preform fragments to link it a single strand
Excel in interface with most likely have heterochromatin present
The enzyme the stitches Okazaki fragments together on the lagging strand is
The enzyme that creates a short are in the sacrament at the initiation sites were replication is to be carried out is called a
Genetic material must
Relay information, be able to be replicated, be able to be passed on, account for variation
In the DNA double helix complementary base pairs are held together by
If a DNA strand with the base sequence TTGCAGG where to be and saved and be replicated what would be the base sequence of TTCAGG old pattern new complementary strand
The enzyme responsible for initiating the unwinding of double-stranded DNA (alleviating coiling) by nicking a single strand of the DNA molecule is a
Because one original strand of the double stranded DNA helix is found in each daughter cell (after cell division), the DNA replication process is a
The double helix structure of DNA was first described by a
Watson, Crick, and Wilkins
A bacteria s DNA is located in the nucleus
The enzyme that proceeds along one of the strands of a DNA molecule adding nucleotides
DNA polymerase III
A repeating DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes that prevents them from losing base pair sequences at their ends and from fusing together is—
A protein has an amino acid sequence leucine-alanine-serine. The amino acids are represented by the mRNA code UUGCGAAGU. What is the corresponding DNA code for this sequence?
A gene is a
Is a specific segment of nucleotides in DNA
Which of the following is a single-stranded molecule that contains the information for assembly of a specific protein?
During translation, the mRNA is read in which of the following direction?
5' to 3'
Spliceosomes are composed of _____.
Which enzyme transcribes structural genes in eukaryotes?
RNA polymerase II
Unripe black walnuts contain a compound, juglone, that inhibits RNA polymerase. With which process would juglone directly interfere?
Both transcription and translation occur in three steps. What happens during the elongation of each process.
During the elongation step of transcription, the RNA molecule is synthesized. During the elongation step of translation, the protein molecule is synthesized
Which of the following involves a promoter region?
Initiation of transcription
Ribosomes that catalyze their own reactions are
What is the promoter region?
It is a region of a parent DNA strand that binds to the RNA polymerase and initiates transcription.
Which of the above commonly occur for prokaryotes?
Anticodon is the term applied to
the part of the tRNA that interacts with the codon
All of the following are transcribed directly from DNA except
A transcription factor is a
A protein that binds DNA and regulates synthesis of mRNA
Introns are usually present in bacteria
The codon that signals the start of translation, AUG, codes for which amino acid?
mRNA complementary to DNA is produced via
Which of the following involves moving petidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site?
Elongation of translation
GTFs (general transcription factors) are proteins that bind to DNA. What is their function?
Initiate transcription by forming an initiation complex
What would be the action of an activator transcription factor?
Increase the number of mRNAs transcribed
People with Rett syndrome have non-functional methyl-CpG binding proteins. How does this affect the person?
Regulation of transcription is impaired
Which of the following may be involved in combinatorial control of eukaryotic gene expression
Activator proteins, suppressor proteins, DNA methylation, alteration of chromatin structure
If a mutation damaged the enhancer regulatory element in a eukaryotic gene promoter, how would this affect the transcription of the gene?
The rate of transcription would be very low
An operon is a
Cluster of genes that share a promoter and regulatory region
What is polycistronic mRNA?
mRNA that leaves the cell to signal other cells
How does DNA methylation effect transcription?
Iron is needed in mammalian cells but it is toxic at high concentrations. Ferritin is an iron-binding protein that prevents iron toxicity but it's formation is blocked by the active form of the iron regulatory protein (IRP). Iron ions inhibit IRP, what would be the effect of a high iron concentration in the cell?
Rapid translation of the ferritin protein
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a small effector molecule that binds to CAP. When cAMP binds to CAP the transcription rate of the Lac- operon increases. Glucose inhibits cAMP production. How would the addition of glucose affects the rate of lactose metabolism?
histone acetyltransferase and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes convert the chromatin from the closed conformation to the open conformation. What effect does this have on transcription?
RNA polymerase binds and transcribes the gene
Catobolite repression occurs when molecules that can be used to harvest energy (ex. Glucose) stimulates the transcription of particular genes
lac repressor protein inhibits the transcription of the 3 lac-operon genes. When lactose is present, allolactose binds to the repressor and transcription of the lac- operon genes is initiated. In this case the allolactose molecules is function as an
Inducible operons are able to be switched on by the presence of effector molecules. These allow for efficient responses to change in the cell is a environment
When an effector molecule binds to a transcription repressor protein, the repressor protein changes shape and is no longer able to bind to DNA. What would happen to the rate of transcription if the concentration of the effector molecules was reduced?
A sea star roams the intertidal zone eating barnacles. The sea star does not care which type of barnacle it finds, it just eats whatever is finds. What type of selection is the sea star exerting on the barnacle population?
Negative frequency dependent selection
Repressible operons usually encode anabolic enzymes where as inducible operons usually encode catabolic enzymes
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