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Arts and Humanities
UO J201 Midterm
Terms in this set (127)
At their worst, what is the media criticized for?
dwelling on trivial celebrity-driven content rather than a meaningful analysis of important events, failing to fulfill their responsibility as a watchdog for democracy, drawing us away from verbal interaction
What did the shift from oral to written communication create?
Wide gap between classes in terms of education and wealth
Who invented the printing press?
Once the printing press led to the mass distribution of books, what significant changes resulted?
Increased individualism, spread of literacy, increased resistance to authorities such as religious leaders, new socioeconomic classes
First term of media convergence
The technological merging of content in different mass media - EX: magazine articles and radio programs are also accessible on the internet, AND songs, movies, and TV shows are available on computers, iPods and cellphones
Second term of media convergence
Used when describing a business model by which a company consolidates connections, phone services, television, transmissions and internet access under one corporate umbrella - EX: a company that owns TV stations, radio outlets and newspapers in multiple markets - as well as in the same cities - can deploy one reporter or producer to create 3 or 4 versions of the same story for various media outlets.
What are the drawbacks of media convergence?
Media owners personal biases and interests gain more influence in society, limits the range of perspectives from which messages are delivered
The printing press ultimately helped to usher in the modern era. What values came into sharp focus across the American cultural landscape at this time?
Working efficiently, celebrating the individual, believing in rational order, rejecting tradition and embracing progress
What dominant values have been identified in today's postmodern period?
Celebrating populism, embracing the supernatural, reviving older cultural styles, embracing technology
What is populism?
An appeal to ordinary people by setting up a conflict between the people and the elite
Describe Marshall McLuhan's (1911-1980) beliefs about the media
The medium is the message
It is the medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action
Discuss the Modern Times film clip we watched
Charlie Chaplain had to work in a factory and he kept being as to work faster and faster until finally his work became him and he was a workaholic
What was the first mass-produced book?
Why is the media needed today?
Capitalist economy depends on product sales, democracy needs political discourse, connection and information are needed to compensate for a weakened family and community, entertainment
first characteristic of postmodern media
Hyper-reality: an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from stimulation of reality, especially in advanced technological postmodern societies
second characteristic of postmodern media
Pastiche: an artistic work in a style that imitates that of another work, artist or period
third characteristic of postmodern media
Intertextuality: the relationship between texts, especially literary ones
True or false: The research presented in "The Shallows" suggests that heavy internet use changes how our brains work
Two brain benefits of using the internet include exercising the regions of the brain associated with _______ and _______
Decision making and problem solving
A drawback of using the internet is the redirection of our mental resources,w which inhibits our ________ and _________
Comprehension and retention
Does consuming online information inhibit our ability to store that information in our long-term memory?
True or false: So far, research continues to show that people who read a text peppered with links learn more than people who read a traditional text without links
In a study by researchers at Cornell University, which students performed better on a test following the class lecture-- the students who kept their laptops shut or the students who surged information related to the lecture?
In a study by researchers at Kansas State University, which group of students remembered more facts from the four news stories--the group who watched the newscast without graphics and news crawl or the group who watched the newscast with them
According to an expert from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the frequent shifting of our attention that occurs when we're online helps our ability to multitask while inhibiting our ability to _______ ________ and _________
think deeply and creatively
Why is neutrality an unreachable ideal?
Merely by deciding which information and experience to include in a news story, journalists cannot help but present a point of view on the story's subject/topic
True or false: Other than extraordinary circumstances, most newsrooms frown upon the practice of concealing one's identity to get a quote or story from an interview participant
True or false: Gifts, favors, free travel, special treatment and privileges can compromise the integrity of journalists and their employers, so nothing of value should be accepted, according to journalism's code of ethics
What is the golden mean and which philosopher introduced it?
Aristotle, a guidline for seeking balance between competing positions
What is the categorical imperative and which philosopher introduced it?
Kant, suggests that a society must adhere to moral codes that are universal and unconditional, applicable in all situations at all times
What is Jayson Blair known for?
Fabricating stories at the New York Times
What is a sound bite?
Part of a news report in which an expert, a celebrity, a victim, or a person on the street is interviewed about some aspect of an event or issue
What is happy talk?
ad-libbed or scripted banter that goes on among local news anchors, reporters, meteorologists and sports reporters before and after news reports
What is virtue ethics and which conceptualized philosopher proposed it?
Aristotle, virtue is achieved by doing good things, so that they become habitual aka developing a good character
How does Jayson Blair's story relate to virtue ethics?
Explain the golden mean and apply it in a general way and to journalism. Also, identify who conceptualized it
Aristotle, a person can become virtuous by choosing the middle ground between being deficient or excessive. EX: not cowardly and not reckless, but courageous. not surly or obsequious, but respectful.
First broad category of ethical framework
Deontological theories identify the moral course of action based on how ethical the means are for achieving the goal. Ex: it is never ethical to deceive, even if there are good outcomes
Second broad category of ethical framework
Teleological theories identify the moral course of action based on the expected good that the decision will bring; the ends justify the means
Explain Kantian theory, including the categorical imperative. Also be prepared to identify the categorical imperative as Kant's theory. You should be able to apply Kantian theory
Deontological theorist: an act is only moral if it is based on a virtuous intent and good will is good not because of what it affects or accomplishes nor because of its fitness to attain some proposed end; it is good only in itself
- This is a moral law that focuses on consistent decision making for everyone based on rules, like always telling the truth.
-The decision cannot involve treating people as a means to an end (aka, do NOT exploit people to achieve a goal)
- Peolpe must be treated with dignity and respect, not as a means to an end
Explain utilitarianism and identify its original founder
Jeremy Bentham, the act is moral if it produces good consequences. The most moral act produces the greatest ratio of good to evil for anyone affected by a decision
Explain how Mill further shaped the philosophy of his teacher
Sometimes a decision that favors the majority is not the moral one to make
Ex: decisions should not infringe on people's sovereignty over their own actions
What is the ethic of care, how does it compare to justice approaches to ethical decision making and who proposed it?
Carol Gilligan, an approach to morality that would justify a wrong action. We are part of a network of individuals whose needs create a duty in us to respond. We don't have to respond to every need; it depends on the severity of the need, competing needs of others and our ability to help
What is the circuit of culture and how is it useful to media research?
A framework that can be used to examine the various ways in which meaning is created, contested, and negotiated
First component of the circuit of culture
Representation: the meanings produced by the way something is represented, Ex: Violent crimes are commited by people with a mental illness
Second component of the circuit of culture
Production: the meanings encoded by producers
Third component of the circuit of culture
Consumption: the meanings audiences derive and their reactions
Fourth component of the circuit of culture
Identity: refers to perceptions of message sources, message recipients and identities produced within the message itself
Fifth component of the circuit of culture
Regulation: attempts to control culture through formal and informal controls
What aspects can influence the interpretation of media content?
How does the identity of a message producer influence the meaning that results from a message?
how consumers understand something, identity that's created within the text itself, perceptions of expected audience
From the circuit of culture, be prepared to identify a formal control and informal controls from the area of regulation
Describe the history of regulation in the context of US movies. You do not need to memorize dates. You should be familiar with the general trajectory
Maine adopted first censorship laws
NYC mayor shutdown licenses of all its theaters
NY Board of Motion Picture Censorship
Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors of America
Motion Picture Production Code
Production Code Admninistration
Motion Picture Administration of America
Burstyn v. Wilson
What was the Motion Picture Production Code and what were examples of the guidelines discussed in class?
a set of industry censorship guidelines that influenced most movies
No picture should lower audiences' moral standards. The sympathy of the audience should never be swayed to the side of
crime, wrongdoing, evil or sin.
Correct standards of life, subject only to the requirements of drama and entertainment, shall be presented.
No picture should ridicule the law or create sympathy for violating the law.
Why did studios agree to go through the PCA?
avoid federal regulation
maintain good relationships with religious groups
make plot lines formulaic and easy to write
How does today's rating system exert influence as an informal control in the circuit of culture?
rating a film receives can affect how many people see it, whether media will carry ads, and whether stores like Walmart will carry the DVD
How can ethical frameworks be applied to the topic of portraying vulnerable populations in the news and media entertainment?
What is the process that an advocacy organization wants to guide a targeted cultural producer through based on the cultural byproducts advocacy model?
Pollution: cultural producers of a text experience pressure because they have violated the rules of the social order
Guilt: cultural producer is uncomfortable with the violation or accusation and feels the need to do something about it
Puriﬁcation: cultural producer processes the guilt through a path
Mortiﬁcation: cultural producer accepts responsibility for the violation of the social order
A targeted cultural producer can engage in purification through which two paths?
Victimage: transfers the responsibility elsewhere for the violation of the social order, such as discounting the allegation or blaming outside forces
Redemption: achieves restoration with the social order
What is the postmodern view of audiences' interpretation of texts?
What did the two Girl Scouts do that finally convinced the Girl Scouts organization to take them seriously?
Built coalitions with external activist groups
How did the Girl Scouts organization disempower the two Girl Scouts in its organizational discourse?
By using the scouts' first names only in news releases, referring to them as girls and taking credit for their interest in the palm oil issue
How did the Girl Scouts organization minimize the palm oil issue and keep the discussion focused on the product rather than the organization's policy for interacting with bakers?
By having the Girl Scouts spokesperson and product manager speak for the organization rather than the CEO
Is media coverage success proportional to an organization's financial resources?
What is a synecdoche?
ﬁgure of speech that is used when part of something stands in for the whole
Why are synecdoches commonly used in media activism?
Concrete images are more powerful than abstract
What are the ways in which a person consuming news about the two Girl Scouts' efforts could have a distorted understanding of the palm oil issue?
GS cookies account for less than
one one-hundreth of 1% of global palm oil use
Slave- and child-labor issues were not prominent in
Issue of palm plantations as a resource to alleviate
poverty in countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia
Other species are more threatened than orangutans
Be familiar with Greenpeace's Kit Kat Killer campaign against Nestle (what the campaign was about, Nestle's initial reaction, successful or not)
Nestle tried to remove the YouTube video due to copyright infringement and also removed advocates' posts on Facebook page due to copyright infringement
What should public relations professionals learn from the Streisand effect?
can't take something off the Internet becasuse the more you block something, the more it comes
What does the marketing function of an organization focus on?
product, price, place, promotion
How is public relations similar and different from marketing and advertising?
advertising and marketing are focused on customers
PR is focused on not only customers but also any group of people who can affect an organization's success, advertising is focused on sales, public relations contributes to sales but is also focused on guiding an organization's decision making, advertising involves promotion through paid media, PR involves promotion through earned media
Name the concept: Favorable publicity gained entirely through promotional efforts rather than paid advertising
According to our class discussion, what is public relations?
management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics who can influence its success
Example of paid media
traditional advertising- general consumers, print, tv, radio, display, direct mail
Example of owned media
corporate website, campaign microsite, blog, customers
Example of earned media
media coverage and word of mouth, super fans
Identify and define the four types of publics and recognize which two are the most important
Enabling and functional are the most important. Normative and diffused are the other two types
People who have authority over the organization, such as government legislators and regulators, stockholders, and a board of directors
People who are part of an organization's input and output, such as employees, volunteers, suppliers, customers, donors and members depending on the type of organization
Groups with common interests, such as trade associations and competitors
Media and individuals, such as activists and companies
What is boundary spanning?
Representing a public's values to an organization and representing values of the organization to that public
Has the internet affected newspapers' classified ad revenues?
Can public TV stations and public radio accept advertising under any circumstance?
They can accept advertising on the internet
According to the textbook, why is it difficult for small companied to succeed with media products?
They have limited capital and have a hard time absorbing losses
Complete this sentence: Every time we read a newspaper article, book, or magazine or watch a movie or TV show, we absorb messages suggesting...
what is important and how the world works
If we consume enough consistent narratives through the media and lack personal experience about an aspect of life, we might conclude what?
that what we are seeing in these media products is just the way things are
How did magazine, radio, and cable industries counter television's mass appeal? Be prepared to identify an example for the exam
Synergy: Promotion and sale of different versions of a media product across a media conglomerate's various subsidiaries. Ex: Time Warner's HBO special about the making of a Warner's Brothers movie reviewed in Time magazine
Do 80% of American movies earn back their costs in US theaters?
What is cultural imperialism?
When a culture from one country dominates the global market and shapes the cultures of other nations
In this age of media consolidation, is there at least significant diversity in the US media industry?
According to the documentary titled "Miss Representation," how do we see the lack of adequate representation among media professionals showing up in media content?
only 20% of news articles are about women
Is there relatively equal gender representation in family films?
Males outnumber females 3 to 1 in family films
What is media convergence?
company lowers its costs and maximizes its profits by offering various media services
reporter can write several versions of a news story for various media
platforms for media content have merged
Globalism has coincided with...
specialized media markets and cultural imperialism
True or false: According to the Huffington Post article, advocacy journalists are focused on advancing a political agenda
What does the author of the Huffington Post article recommend in terms of how we should consume the news?
consume a wide range of news sources to go beyond our own echo chambers
From the Nieman Lab article, what are "knowledge journalists?"
Journalists who use their knowledge or expert logic to analyze problems and poligical logic to help point to policy solutions
What are the benefits of US cultural imperialism?
universal popular culture creates a global village and can foster communication/friendships across national borders
aspects of our culture challenge authority and outmoded traditions which can create and arena in which citizens in other countries can ask questions
Be familiar with the story of Dallas and Romania
Romanian government used Dallas as an example of the excessiveness of capitalism and the consumption that accompanies an American lifestyle but it backfired
What are the drawbacks of US cultural imperialism?
hampers development of native cultures and can negatively influence teenagers who abandon their own rituals to adopt american tastes and discourages development of original local products
Based on media economics, why are American TV shows--both reality show and sitcoms--dominant in other countries?
How do films maximize their profits?
Exporting, sales and rentals, and merchandise
Be familiar with why the Seventh Heaven example was notable
Why are reality shows so attractive from a media economics perspective?
Cheap to produce and a lot of interaction with products
What does Chomsky's propaganda filters illustrate?
Be familiar with the filters in Chomsky's propaganda model
profit orientation/profit margin, advertising is the primary source of income, reliance on news from government and business sources, and information subsidy
What is an information subsidy?
supply of news from a PR source
What is an unbranded campaign, why is it used by PR people, and when is it used?
campaign that promotes a product category rather than a specific product
Are PR practitioners supposed to reveal the sponsor for represented causes and interests, according to the code of ethics from the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)?
What is a VNR?
Video News Release
Are PR practitioners supposed to clearly label VNRs and encourage television stations and other venus to identify the VNR source, according to the code of ethics?
Identify characteristics (news values) that make a story newsworthy
Timeliness, impact, emotion, prominence, novelty, controversy, currency, usefulness, educational value
Some reporters compared Ahmed's case to other stories involving schools with zero tolerance policies. Did these cases have anything in common?
Yes, teachers are being hyper-vigilant about safety concerns
Were there aspects of the other cases that were very different than Ahmed's case?
arrested, device that looked like a bomb, islamic name and not white
How are media frames established?
Headlines, pictures, first paragraph, who is interviewed in the story, where people with opinions that counter the dominant narrative are placed in the story
What is advocacy journalism?
Fact-based journalism that argues for a particular perspective on an issue
How can advocacy journalism be valuable?
valuable in the sense of knowledge journalists who can weigh through arguments on a various side and provide an insightful level of analysis through the careful selection of information
How can advocacy journalism be dangerous?
dangerous when the agenda comes before the investigation of the story
Distinguish media framing from advocacy journalism
happens no matter how objective you're trying to be. Advocacy journalim sets out to favor a political agenda in their reporting of news. The media framing is intentional; this is very different than striving for objectivity
First role in media play according to book "The Press Effect"
Storytellers: story shapes which facts are presented. Reporters do not necessarily fact-check their sources. This focus can result in dismissing the impulse to look for information that would undercut the storyline
Second role in media play according to book "The Press Effect"
Custodian of fact: watchdog involves correcting misleading and false statements, reducing confusion and punishing deception. Costs the most time and resources
Third role in media play according to book "The Press Effect"
Psychologists: the media tend to create simple frames that portray political candidates in terms of one or two characteristics of their personality. What is emphasized or omitted in the news depends on whether it continues to build the case that has been established
Fourth role in media play according to book "The Press Effect"
Soothsayer: media focuses on predicting outcome
Fifth role in media play according to book "The Press Effect"
Patriot: desire to challenge the actions or question the motivations of those who lead decreases during a national crisis
What was the Citizens for a Free Kuwait case study about?
front group that was primarily funded by the Kuwait government. It hired a PR agency to encourage the US to get involved in the Gulf War. Part of the effort involved testimony by a 15-year-old, using the name Nayirah. She hid her identity as the Kuwait ambassador's daughter and gave false testimony to the government
Explain the characteristics of alternative media
nonprofit advocacy underground ethnic (to some degree)
Focused on ideas over profit
Intended audience is broad, not elite
Represent a broad spectrum of political interests, from liberal to conservative
What seems to happen when ethnic media get so popular that they are taken over by large holding companies--Do they still act like alternative media?
Tend to act like mainstream media
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