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Nuclear Chem Final
Terms in this set (38)
20%, 8%, 80%
nuclear power provides nearly how much of the world's electricity? the US? France?
who is the world leader in nuclear power?
103 (located in 31 states, 34 are BWRs, 69 are PWRs), 200+
how many nuclear power plants exist in the US? Europe?
what was the first nuclear reactor called?
"It is not too much to expect that our children will enjoy in their homes (nuclear generated) electrical energy too cheap to meter" - Lewis Strauss (Chairman of the US AEC)
what was the vision for nuclear power in 1954? who's vision was it?
a secret government project to create atomic weapons during WWII which led to the technology used in nuclear plants today
underground mining, open pit mining, in situ leaching
what are the 3 main methods of uranium mining?
Energy Reorganization Act of 1974
act which created the NRC and DOE
nuclear regulatory commission
commission that regulates reactors, the use of nuclear materials, and the movement, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and waste
department of energy
department that oversees nuclear weapons - the public relations side of nuclear energy
cost, safety, proliferation, and waste disposal
what are the 4 major problems of nuclear energy?
Russellville, Lake Dardanelle
where are Arkansas Nuclear One and Two located?
pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR)
what are the 3 types of nuclear reactors?
the fraction of time over a reporting period that the nuclear plant is operational
the fraction of total electrical power that could be produced
the electrical energy output per thermal energy output of the reactor
fuel, moderator, control rods, coolant, steam generator, turbine/generator, pumps, heat exchanger
what are the 8 core components of a nuclear reactor structure?
Palo Verde (3825 MWe, 3 reactors)
where is the largest nuclear plant in the US located? (12th largest in the world)
General Electric, Westinghouse, AREVA NP, and ABB Combustion Eng.
what are the 4 primary manufacturers of nuclear power plants?
under the Chicago Bears football field
where was the first nuclear reactor located?
the father of nuclear power
spent nuclear fuel pool
designed as temporary storage for fuel while short lived isotopes decay (<1 year); you would have to keep spent fuel rods under at least 20 feet of water to provide adequate shielding from the radiation for anyone near the pool
1. fission products
- over 60 isotopes
- 7 have significant gamma decay during the first 20 years: Zr95, Nb95, Ru103, Cs134, Cs137, Ce141, Ce144
- over 20 isotopes
- these gamma rays have lower energy
what are the 2 types of long-lived radioactive isotopes in discharged nuclear fuel?
1. cooling time - the time after discharged from the reactor
2. burnup - the amount of fuel used in the reactor
3. reactor type - whether it comes from PWR or BWR
what are the 3 parameters used to identify the origin of source of a "dirty bomb" if nuclear spent fuel is used?
by measuring the number of decay processes per unit time (most commonly in counts per minute)
how do you determine the amount of radioactivity in a sample?
a unit of measure used to measure the rate of decay
an activity of 1 disintegration per second
what does 1 Becquerel equal?
film badge and geiger counter
what are the 2 forms of personal radiation detectors?
a personal radiation detection device that will fog up when exposed to radiation - the amount of fogging is proportional to the amount of radiation present; not sensitive to low levels of radiation
the most widely used radiation detector
a tube filled with inert gas that will conduct electricity when radiation enters it - when a charged particle enters the tube, the electric potential is changed between the anode and cathode - this change produces a change in voltage in the circuit and registers as a count
describe the general mechanism of a Geiger counter:
device that looks for contamination from radioactive material; it is portable, but not as versatile as a Geiger counter
it is solid crystal with which radioactive emission must interact - this limits the use of the detector to gamma and high energy B particles since medium and low energy B particles cannot penetrate crystal
describe the active portion of a scintillation detector:
radiation reacts with the scintillator producing a series of flashes of varying intensity - FLASH INTENSITY IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE ENERGY OF THE REACTION - these counters can measure the energy of gamma radiation and can therefore be used to identify gamma emitting isotopes
describe the basic principle of operation for a scintillator:
1. it's efficiency and the high precision and counting rates possible
2. can be used to determine energy, as well as the number of the exciting particles (or gamma photons)
3. it is both a qualitative and quantitative measure of the gamma ray spectrum
what are the advantages of a scintillator counter?
studies the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs; shed light on the reaction mechanism - exactly HOW the reaction occurs
the energy of motion
the change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time
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