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94 terms

A&P 1 Midterm CH4

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Metabolism
all of the chemical reactions in a cell
Anabolic Metabolism
biochemical reactions that synthesize compounds
Catabolism
The breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
Catabolism
breakdown of large molecules
anabolic reaction
many monosaccharides bonding, forming glycogen
Monosaccharides join
In dehydration synthesis of a carbohydrate
water molecule is used
When a sucrose molecule is decomposed to yield a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule
lose H2O to form bonds; use H2O to break bonds
Dehydration synthesis reactions _____, whereas hydrolysis reactions _____
They are most active at temperatures about 53 degrees C
is not a characteristic of enzymes
Enzyme
a molecule, usually a protein, that speeds the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy
-ase
The name of an enzyme ends in
The basic steps of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction are
substrate and enzyme combine, forming an E-S complex. The reaction occurs, products are released, and the unchanged enzyme is released and recycled
an enzyme and its substrate
interaction between_____ _____ is when part of the enzyme temporarily binds part of the substrate molecule
Negative Feedback
An important mechanism that controls metabolic pathways under physiological conditions
number of enzyme molecules, number of substrate molecules, and efficiency of the enzyme
Three factors that increase the rates of enzyme-controlled reactions
enzymes; copper, iron, and zinc
A cofactor is a necessary part of some ______ and examples are _____.
act as cofactors
Humans require vitamins in their diets because these nutrients
ATP
A molecule that carries energy in a form the cell can use
it provides energy for cellular work when the terminal, high-energy bond is broken
ATP is important to cellular processes because
Energy
is the capacity of matter to change
ATP molecules in living cells
hold energy from the oxidation of fuels in their high-energy phosphate bonds, and the energy is used in various cell processes
uses enzymes to lower the activation energy
Oxidation during cellular respiration differs from burning in that respiration
Cytoplasm
The reactions of anaerobic respiration take place in the
ATP
increases in abundance during cellular respiration
Acetyl Coenzyme A
A molecule that is common to carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways and connects these two pathways metabolically
Glycolysis
A glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules
carbon dioxide
In the citric acid cycle _______ is released
cellular respiration
energy is released from molecules and is transferred to other molecules
cytoplasm without O2 required; mitochondria with O2 required
Anaerobic respiration occurs in _____, whereas aerobic respiration occurs in ______
Anaerobic respiration
requires oxygen
Glycogen
A molecule that is a storage form of carbohydrate
nitrogenous base - nucleotide - gene - chromosome - genome
structures in order of increasing size
AGTCCGATAAGGGC
If one strand of DNA has the sequence TCAGGCTATTCCCG, then the complementary sequence of the other strand is
interphase
DNA replication occurs during ______ of the cell cycle
DNA replication
during ____ _____ the DNA double helix comes apart where hydrogen bonds join base pairs, and new nucleotides are brought in, forming two double helices
61
How many codons specify the twenty types of amino acids
genetic code
is the correspondence between a DNA nucleotide and a specific amino acid
RNA
is not double stranded
Thymine
nitrogenous base that is part of DNA but not RNA
Uracil
Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of RNA but not DNA
111
A sequence of DNA 333 nucleotides long that is part of a gene encodes ___ amino acids
AUG
DNA transcribed to mRNA always begins with the sequence
Transcription
Copying DNA information into an mRNA molecule
transcription produces RNA and translation produces protein
Transcription and translation differ in that
peptide
bond forms between adjacent amino acids held on a ribosome and bound to tRNAs
Codons
are part of mRNA
any of three "stop" codons are encountered in the mRNA
Synthesis of a protein stops when
UUGCCACGUGGUGCC
A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes an mRNA of sequence
leu-pro-arg-gly-ala
A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes a portion of a protein of sequence
Mutation
a change in a DNA sequence in less than 1% of a population that affects anatomy and/or physiology
about 99.9% alike
The genome sequences of different individuals are
A mutation can cause disease if
the DNA sequence changes so that one amino acid is substituted for another in a way that affects the encoded protein's functioning
mutations, SNPs, and changes in copy number
Three types of genetic changes are
adenine, ribose, and three phosphates
An ATP molecule consists of
True
The electron transport chain is a series of enzyme complexes that pass electrons, releasing energy that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane
genome
All of the genetic information in a cell
gene
The portion of a DNA molecule that contains the genetic information for making a protein
GCGAAUGCUAAC
A DNA sequence of CGCTTACGATTG would be transcribed into an RNA sequence of
3
types of RNA participate in protein synthesis
anticodon
The part of the tRNA that binds mRNA
Glycolysis
Anaerobic and aerobic respiration begin with _______, in which glucose is broken down
substrate
The molecule that an enzyme affects is its _________.
purines pyrimidines
Adenine and guanine are ________ and cytosine and thymine are ______
Substrate
The substances acted upon by an enzyme
dehydration synthesis
the process involves ____ when amino acids are bonded to form proteins
addition of water
What does not denature an enzyme
2
What is the net ATP production in glycolysis
Glycolysis
The anaerobic phase of cellular respiration
lactic acid
During anaerobic conditions, when low oxygen levels may occur, glucose is converted to what stable end product to provide ATP energy
oxidative phosphorylation
The formation of ATP involving the loss of hydrogen atoms and the bonding of phosphate to ADP
RNA contains ribose instead of deoxyribose sugar
What is a difference between RNA and DNA molecules
nucleus ribosomes
mRNA carries information from the ___ to the____
t RNA
carry amino acids to the ribosomes
Nucleus
Where does transcription occur
Ribosomes
Where does translation occur
Transfer rna
During the process of protein synthesis, amino acids are positioned in proper sequence by molecules of
Codon
a series of 3 nucleic acid bases contained on mRNA
Anticodon
a series of 3 nucleic acids bases on the tRNA
Transcription
the process that synthesizes mRNA from DNA using a section called a gene
Hydrogen bonds
Bonds between the complementary base pairs in DNA
Helicase
enzyme that unzips and unwinds the DNA molecule
True
The leading strand is replicated continuously, while the lagging strand is replicated discontinuously
Translation
is the synthesis of proteins from mRNA
Pyruvate
In glycolysis, glucose is converted to
61
the number of codons that specify the 20 types of animo acids
Amylase
What is an example of an enzyme
Oxygen
During aerobic respiration, the last carrier protein transfers a pair of electrons to
hydrogen
Electrons enter the ETC when NADH transfers them there along with protons in the form of
lactic acid
Under anaerobic conditions, the end product of glycolysis is converted to
RNA polymerase
the enzyme that begins transcription
2 ATP, 4 NADH, 2 FADH2
What do 2 circuits of Krebs cycle produce
UAC
If DNA has a sequence of bases (ATG), what would the mRNA sequence be
auc
If DNA has a sequence of bases (TAG), what would the tRNA sequence be
Anaerobic respiration
breaks down glucose into 2 pyruvic acid molecules, occurs in the absence of oxygen, releases energy, transfers energy to ATP molecules