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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (36)
What is the Philosophy Religion? What is it not?
Know what natural theology is vs. revealed theology, and what is meant by a priori vs. a posteriori. Which arguments for God's existence were a priori and which were a posteriori?
Natural: study or science of God through the use of the natural intellect, seeks to gain knowledge and understanding of Gods nature
Revealed: study of God by means of special revelation, seeks to provide an understanding about the relational aspect of humans to God
Priori: without the benefit of sense, through reason alone
Posteriori: to have the benefit of sense experience
What is the Cosmological Argument for God's existence (have a good general understanding of what this argument is all about)? Is it a priori or a posteriori? Why? What observation of the world do advocates of this argument point to?
Base on Greek word kosmos which means universe
Posteriori argument bc most formulations of the argument make observations of the world and then develop an argument as to what might be the ultimate explanation for the existence of this world
There must be something that world depends on
In class we discussed Aquinas' "three ways" to formulate the Cosmological Argument. What were these? What did they all have in common?
They all point out that the world is dependent
What is a contingent being? A necessary being?
Can there be an infinite regress of contingent beings? Why or why not?
No because an infinite regress of contingent beings is not going to cause anything
What is the common move by those who reject the Cosmological Argument?
Take all the contingent existences, put them together and then call the whole pile necessary
How is the Kalam Cosmological Argument different from the traditional version of the Cosmological Argument?
Believes the universe had a beginning
Kalam means rational in Arabic
Regarding the Kalam argument: there were three lines of argumentation presented to defend the notion that the universe had a beginning. What were these and how did they point to the fact that the universe seems to have had a beginning?
Whatever begins to exist had a cause
The universe began to exist
Therefore, the universe had a cause
What is the Teleological Argument for God's existence? Is it an a priori or a posteriori type of argument? What observation of the world do advocates of this argument point to?
All human objects exhibit design and are the products of an intelligent being
The universe exhibits design
Therefore, probably the universe is the product of an intelligent being
What kind or type of argument is the Teleological Argument? Given the answer to this, is the conclusion of the argument necessary or probabilistic?
What is the "watchmaker thesis?" What is the "blind watchmaker thesis?"
What is the difference between narrow vs. wider teleology? How does Darwin's teaching impact this argument?
What is theistic evolution?
The belief that God works through the natural process of evolution
What is the Ontological Argument for God's existence? Is it an a priori or a posteriori argument? Why?
God is the greatest or most perfect being
A being who exists in reality is greater or more perfect than a being who does not exist only in the understanding
Therefore, god must exist in reality
Priori because it is based on the mere idea of God
What definition of God does Anselm offer? What does it mean for something "to exist in reality" vs. "exist in the understanding?" What is the "fool's claim?"
Fools claim: even if one were to make such a foolish claim that person would have to admit that God exists in the understanding
What is the Moral Argument for God's existence? Is it an a prior or a posteriori argument? Why?
Priori because based on our rational insights about moral reality
Refers to the general moral law that we are all aware of
Know the basic line of argumentation for the Moral Argument.
What is the common critique of the Moral Argument? Is it successful?
What is the most common understanding or definition of evil? What is the difference between natural and moral evil? What is a theodicy?
What is the Problem of Evil? What were the three formulations of the Problem of Evil mentioned in class?
What is the Logical Problem of Evil? What type of argument is it? Know the basic formulation of the argument and from where it derives its force? to the argument mentioned in class explicitly contradictory? What attempts have been Are the three premises made by atheists to show that they are contradictory?
What is the Free Will Defense? Be able to explain the basic line of reasoning behind this argument.
God expresses his omnibenevolent, Omnipotent nature by creating free beings who, as they exceeded their freedom are responsible for the existence of evil
What is the Evidential Problem of Evil? What kind of argument is it? What is gratuitous does the theist have in regard to the Evidential Problem?
God could not possibly have a moral sufficient reason for some kinds of evil
What is the Existential Problem of Evil? What kind of responses can a theist offer in regard to this problem?
In class we discussed a method in which the reality of evil can actually be evidence for God's existence. Be able to explain why this is the case.
What is the difference between theoretical and applied ethics?
Know the five different ethical theories that we discussed in class (Teleological Systems, Deontological Systems, Relativism, Emotivism, and Virtue Theory).
Week 12: pages 11-24
What were the two Teleological Systems we discussed? How are they alike and different? Know the difference between Act and Rule Utilitarianism.
What were the three Deontological Systems we discussed?
What is the Functional View of Personhood? How does it relate to the Property-Thing view of a human being? Know the basics of how the Property-Thing view differs from the Substance View of a human being.
pro-choice arguments and the basic responses a pro-life advocate may offer. abortion. Know what these were What logical fallacy do all pro- choice arguments suffer from?
In class we discussed an argument for the personhood of the fetus. Know the basics of this argument.
What were the two types of moral relativism we discussed in class?
What were some significant problems that the different views of moral relativism face?
Two critiques of the Ontological argument have been offered. What were these?
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