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chapter 12 infectious conditionsQuiz, HSCI practice Q's ch 12
Terms in this set (100)
Disease-causing agents, called ________, are found throughout the world.
Which of the following is a defense provided by your saliva against disease-causing pathogens?
A) provides a physical barrier to the entrance of pathogens
B) washes microbes from teeth and mucous membranes of the mouth
C) attacks and destroys virus-infected or abnormal body cells
D) washes microbes from the urethra
washes microbes from teeth and mucous membranes of the mouth
Which of the following is a risk factor for infection that you can control?
A) organism virulence
D) personal hygiene
Barry, who has a really bad cold, coughs into his bare hand. He uses the same hand to grab the pole in the subway car to steady himself as the car goes around a tight corner. Several minutes later, Donny, who is perfectly healthy, grabs the same pole as Barry. Later that morning, Donny scratches his eye with the hand that grabbed the pole. A day or two later, Donny has a really bad cold. If Donny got his cold from Barry, then you would say that the pathogen was transmitted by
A) indirect contact.
C) direct contact.
D) opportunistic infection
Which of the following is a common bacterial infection?
B) infectious mononucleosis
C) staphylococcal infection
D) the common cold
Which of the following is a tickborne bacterial disease?
A) multidrug-resistant TB
C) Lyme disease
Which of the following is a common viral infection?
Sean, a 65-year old man, has developed a painful, blistering rash on his legs. His doctor tells him it is shingles and that it is the result of a virus he had as a child. What was that virus?
Which of the following is your best bet for avoiding the common cold?
A) Take mega-doses of vitamin C.
B) Eat lots of chicken soup.
C) Wash your hands (with soap) often.
D) Don't go out when it is cold
wash your hands (with soap) often
Flu vaccines correctly formulated for a current strain of influenza are usually effective for about ________ months.
Gregor has been diagnosed with West Nile virus. Which of the following is most likely the way he contracted the disease?
A) He ate undercooked beef.
B) He was bitten by an infected mosquito.
C) He had sexual contact with someone who had the disease.
D) He picked it up from the mats at the yoga studio he attends two days a week
he was bitten by an infected mosquito
Which of the following is the largest of the pathogens?
C) parasitic worms
Rhonda recently returned from a trip to France, where she ate rare beef and drank unpasteurized milk. Now she has developed disease symptoms that include nonbloody diarrhea. Which of the following emerging diseases is she most likely to have?
C) avian flu
D) Escherichia coli 0157:H7
Escherichia coli 0157:H7
Why are some bacteria and microorganisms referred to as "superbugs"?
A) They have become resistant to the drugs used at one time to treat them.
B) They are bacteria that act like viruses.
C) They are unaffected by temperature.
D) They are larger than normal.
they have become resistant to the drugs used at one time to treat them
When Terry and Kim have vaginal and/or oral sex, they use latex condoms and dental dams. On the continuum of risk for STIs, where do they fall?
A) no-risk behavior
B) low-risk behavior
C) moderate-risk behavior
D) high-risk behavior
If you contract an STI but do not seek treatment, which of the following are possible consequences?
Mark uses a latex condom and a water-based lubricant when he has vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Kristy, on the other hand, engages in unprotected anal sex. Lisa prefers rubbing, kissing, and mutual masturbation. Who is engaging in low-risk behaviors?
D) Mark and Lisa, but not Kristy
Sarah, who lives in the United States, has been infected with HIV. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), which of the following is the most likely source of her infection?
A) female-to-female sexual contact
B) injection drug use
C) high-risk heterosexual contact
high-risk heterosexual contact
Todd, who lives in the United States, has been infected with HIV. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), which of the following is the most likely source of his infection?
A) male-to-male sexual contact
B) injection drug use
C) high-risk heterosexual contact
male-to-male sexual contact
Brian is concerned that he may have been exposed to HIV, so he has decided to go to the student health center for a blood test known as the ELISA. What does the ELISA measure?
A) Brian's CD4 (helper T cell) count
B) the amount of HIV in Brian's blood
C) whether or not antibodies have formed in reaction to HIV
D) whether or not Brian has developed Kaposi's sarcoma
whether or not antibodies have formed in reaction to HIV
Peter is concerned that he may have contracted an STI because urination has become really painful. Which of the following statements is most likely true?
A) Peter definitely has chlamydia.
B) Peter definitely has gonorrhea.
C) Peter has neither chlamydia nor gonorrhea.
D) Peter could have either chlamydia or gonorrhea.
Peter could have either chlamydia or gonorrhea
Which of the following statements is true about chlamydia?
A) It is often asymptomatic.
B) It presents few complications for men.
C) It can soon lead to death if left untreated.
D) It often produces urinary tract infections in men and women.
it is often asymptomatic
Chris is pregnant and has chlamydia. She has not been treated for the chlamydia because she doesn't know she has it. Chris could pass the disease to her child during delivery, leading to which of the following conditions?
D) pelvic inflammatory disease
Rob has a prominent chancre on his penis. Which stage of syphilis is this?
A) primary syphilis
B) secondary syphilis
C) latent syphilis
D) tertiary/late syphilis
Sarah contracted syphilis in her early 20s, but it went untreated until she developed lesions called gummas. What stage of syphilis is this?
A) primary syphilis
B) secondary syphilis
C) latent syphilis
D) tertiary/late syphilis
If Mark has syphilis, which of the following is the most likely way he contracted it?
A) by using a public toilet
B) by piercing with an infected needle
C) by engaging in a contact sport such as wrestling
D) by direct sexual contact
by direct sexual contact
If Adrienne has genital herpes and is pregnant, which of the following is probably her best course of action for preventing her child from getting infected from her?
A) a course of strong antibiotics for Adrienne while she is still pregnant
B) delivery by cesarean section
C) treatment with famciclovir (FAMVIR)
D) a course of strong antibiotics for the child after it is born
delivery by cesarean section
Genital warts are caused by a group of viruses known as HPV. What does HPV stand for?
A) human protein virus
B) human papyrusvirus
C) human papillomavirus
D) human papillonvirus
The typical incubation period for genital HPV is 6 to 8 ________ after contact.
Donna has been diagnosed with a yeast infection. Which of the following is another name for the same disease?
B) pubic lice
Trichomoniasis is caused by a
Which of the following is not a symptom of a pubic lice infestation?
A) itchiness in the area covered by pubic hair
B) bluish-gray skin color in the pubic region
C) a white, cheesy discharge from the penis or vagina
D) sores in the genital area
a white, cheesy discharge from the penis or vagina
Which of the following terms means a global outbreak and spread of a disease?
For infectious disease to occur, the host must be
a. either very young or very old.
d. in direct contact with the pathogen.
Not getting enough sleep and eating a regular diet of junk food will have what effect?
a. Will speed the process of resisting a pathogen
b. Will limit your exposure to pathogens
c. Will increase the ability of your immune system to fight disease
d. Will increase your risk of infectious disease
Which of the following risk factors for disease can you control?
b. Nutritional status
c. Environmental conditions
The process by which infectious disease occurs is known as the
a. susceptibility, transmission, hospitability model.
b. epidemiological triad of disease.
c. mode of transmission.
d. chain of infectious disease.
Animals, insects, food, and water can all transmit potentially infectious
Which of the following makes the body vulnerable to pathogens?
a. Enzymes in body secretions
b. Breaks in the skin or mucous membranes
c. Secretions produced by mucous membranes
d. Cilia in the respiratory tract
Rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and type 1 diabetes are examples of which type of disease?
Monica lives in a residence hall suite with three friends. After breakfast, she developed a sudden fever, a severe headache, and a stiff neck. Which of the following infections is most likely causing Monica's symptoms?
a. Strep throat
Redness, swelling, pain, and heat are the cardinal signs of
b. internal bleeding.
c. disease transmission.
By breast-feeding, Jennifer is providing which type of immunity for her baby?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is transmitted by
Tuberculosis, meningitis, and staph infections are caused by
Stephanie has been infected with a virus but has not yet had any visible symptoms. This symptomless period during which a virus develops fully is known as
An example of an endemic disease is
c. the common cold.
Diseases caused by bacteria can be treated with
Influenza is caused by
a. a protozoan.
b. a virus.
The form of hepatitis that can be contracted from eating food or drinking water contaminated with human feces is
a. hepatitis a.
b. hepatitis B.
c. hepatitis C.
d. hepatitis D.
Which process is occurring when bacteria establish themselves on a host without causing infection?
Shingles is most common in people over the age of
Bob is a 62-year-old male who had chicken pox as a child. This increases his risk for the virus to reoccur in the form of
Jock itch is an example of a condition caused by
a. a protozoan.
d. a virus.
Boils, acne, and infected wounds are all associated with
a. a rapidly spreading virus.
b. unsanitary hygiene practices.
c. staph infections.
d. parasitic infestation.
The skin provides which type of barrier to pathogens?
Which of the following are signs of meningitis?
a. Nausea and vomiting
b. Chronic cough and difficulty breathing
c. Profuse sweating and fatigue
d. Sudden fever and severe headache
Susan's grandmother has rheumatoid arthritis, a disease in which her immune system makes antibodies that fail to recognize "self." Which type of disease is this?
Fred enjoys eating sushi. What risk is posed by consuming raw fish?
b. Parasitic worms
d. Prion-related disease
How are fungal infections most commonly transmitted?
a. Airborne pathogens
b. Waterborne pathogens
c. Physical contact
d. Ingesting contaminated food
Climate change is thought to be increasing the global risk for
c. antibiotic resistance.
d. opportunistic infection.
Autoinoculation occurs when
a. a person contracts a disease from a pet.
b. a person contracts a disease from a family member.
c. a person's immune system attacks the person's own tissues.
d. a person transfers an infection from one part of their body to another.
Diseases of animals that may be transmitted to humans are described as
Which of the following is NOT recommended as a way to reduce your risk of infectious disease?
a. Exercise regularly.
b. Get enough sleep.
c. Expose yourself to pathogens.
d. Get vaccinated.
Which of the following is an infectious disease risk factor you cannot control?
b. Living conditions
d. Limiting your exposure to pathogens
Which of the following is NOT an antigen?
a. A fungal spore
b. A parasite
c. An antibody
d. A bacterium
The 1918 flu pandemic
a. struck mainly Americans and Canadians.
b. struck nearly 10 percent of the world's population.
c. killed more than 50 million people.
d. was also known as the Hong Kong flu.
Which of the following is NOT a cause of the rise of antibiotic resistance?
a. Improper use of antibiotics
b. Overuse of antibiotics in food production
c. Overuse of antibacterial cleaning products
d. A decrease in childhood vaccination
How many major types of pathogen are there?
Which of the following statements about childhood vaccinations is TRUE?
a. Undervaccination rates are highest in college-educated white families.
b. All 50 states allow families to opt out of childhood vaccinations because of "personal beliefs."
c. Evidence suggests that vaccination before age two increases a child's risk for sudden infant death syndrome.
d. Parents no longer have to vaccinate their children against measles because it is no longer a concern on U.S. soil.
Which of the following involves infection and inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord?
a. Staph infection
b. Clostridium difficile
d. Streptococcal infection
Which infectious disease is second only to HIV/AIDS in terms of deaths caused each year?
a. Lyme disease
Pathogens are found everywhere: in air, food, and water and on objects, people, and animals.
Janice has been sick frequently since the start of her freshman year in college. More than likely this is due to lack of sleep, poor nutritional habits, stress from academic pressures, and crowded dorm conditions.
Most diseases are caused by the interaction of several factors inside and outside the host.
Pain is often the one of earliest signs of an injury or infection.
Staphylococci bacteria can be present on the skin or in the nostrils but not cause an infection.
Zoonotic diseases are those that are transmitted to humans from large animals, such as cows or horses
Substances produced by the body that fight specific causes of disease are antigens.
The body's ability to resist a particular disease by counteracting the agent that produces the disease is known as immunity.
The condition in which the body targets its own tissue as an enemy, builds antibodies against that tissue, and attempts to destroy it is known as autoimmune disease.
There are vaccines for hepatitis A and B but not for hepatitis C.
Giardiasis is an intestinal infection caused by a waterborne protozoan.
An indicator of infection is a lower-than-normal body temperature
An antibody is any substance capable of triggering an immune response.
Medical treatment should be obtained when a small child's body temperature increases beyond 101°F.
Infants should be vaccinated against shingles
Avian flu has thus far been limited largely to areas where people have close contact with droppings or fluids.
Pandemic infections are always present to a certain degree.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and a significant cause of liver cancer
true：a virally caused inflammation of the liver
Your hands are the primary means for transmitting cold viruses
Pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or exposure to chemicals or other substances.
A sore throat is the most common symptom of mumps.
A disease outbreak that affects many people in a community or region at the same time is a pandemic.
List the six routes of disease transmission.
1. Direct or indirect contact
Explain at least three factors that contribute to the current epidemic of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
1. Improper use of antibiotics, such as a patient who doesn't take the full course prescribed
2. Doctors who overprescribe antibiotics - using them when they aren't necessary
3. Overuse of antibiotics in food production
4. Misuse and overuse of antibacterial soaps and cleaning products
Explain the two ways that a mild fever can be beneficial.
1. Can destroy some pathogenic microorganisms
2. Can bolster the immune response by stimulating the production of more white blood cells.
Margo is getting a tattoo on her ankle. If the tattoo artist uses unsterilized needles, this places her at increased risk of contracting which three types of viral infection?
1. Hepatitis A
2. Hepatitis B
3. Hepatitis C
Identify the four risk factors for infectious disease that are out of our control.
1. Heredity - inherited genetic traits
2. Age - those under age 5 and over age 65 are particularly vulnerable due to reduced defenses.
3. Environmental conditions — high temperatures, unsanitary living or working conditions, or the presence of harmful substances or pollutants
4. Organism virulence and resistance - some organisms are particularly virulent and some have become resistant to the body's defenses and/or to drugs used to fight them
Explain how vaccines work.
Vaccines consist of killed or weakened versions of pathogens or an antigen that is similar to but less dangerous than the disease antigen. Vaccination causes the body's immune system to produce antibodies against the pathogen without actually causing the disease. If the actual pathogen should invade the body at a later time, immune memory cells will recognize the pathogen and produce antibodies specific to it. These will quickly quell the infection.
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