Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Pass the Big ABA Exam: Section 4- Assessment
Terms in this set (63)
4 Phases of Intervention (in sequential order)
Assessment (AKA: Functional Behavior Assessment-FBA)
A systematic method for obtaining information about the FUNCTION challenging behaviors serve for an individual.
Allows us to make empirically-based hypotheses for WHY behaviors occur.
Purposes of Assessment
1. Identifies and Defines targets Behaviors for change.
2. Guides us to Create effective and positive Interventions.
5 phases of assessment
1. Screening and general Deposition
2. Defining and quantifying problems or desired achievement criteria
3. Pinpointing target behaviors to be treated
4. Monitoring Progress
Data obtained from recollections, reconstructions, or SUBJECTIVE rating events.
-NOT as reliable as direct descriptive methods.
-Only be used as a supplement to other FBA Methods
Provide information about a persons's behavior AS IT OCCURS.
PREFERRED CHOICE over indirect measures.
2. Direct Observation
4 Ways to Acquire Information For Assessment
COIT (Come on, Its Theory!)
Checklists (AKA: Behavior Checklists)
Alone or with Interview and Rating Scale.
Asks about Antecedents and Consequences of the target behaviors
Observation (AKA: Direct observation)
Direct and repeated in the Natural environment.
Identifies potential target behaviors.
Interviews (AKA: structured behavioral interviews)
First step in identifying List of Behaviors, which can be used later in direct observation.
Aka: Standardized tests
Most standardized tests do NOT work well with functional behavior assessments because results are not translated directly into target behaviors.
A great deal of information is gathered about the individual and the various settings in which that individual Lives and Works.
Creates a lot of DESCRIPTIVE data.
The effects of an assessment process on the behavior of the individual being assessed.
Habilitation (AKA: Adjustment)
Assesses meaningfulness of change.
Occurs when a person's repertoire has been changed such that short and long term reinforcers are maximized and short and long term punishers are minimized.
Nomalization (AKA: Mainstreaming)
The belief that people with disabilities should, to the maximum extent possible, by physically and SOCIALLY INTEGRATED into mainstream society regardless of the degree or type of disability.
Behaviors that open a persons world to NEW CONTINGENCIES.
Has sudden and dramatic consequences that extend well beyond the idiosyncratic change itself.
NOT the same as PREREQUISITE behaviors.
"Exposes the individual's repertoire to new environments, especially new reinforcers & punishers, new contingencies, responses stimuluses. When some or all of those events happen, the individuals repertoire expands; it encourages a differentially selective maintenance of new as well as old repertoires, & perhaps the leads to some further cusps" (Rosales- Ruis & Baer)
Ex: For an infant crawling. Specific arm, head, and leg movements would be COMPONENT behaviors for crawling, but crawling is a CUSP because it enables the infant to contact new environments (toys, parents, locations)
Similarities & differences between Behavior cusp and Pivotal behaviors
Both are behaviors you want to teach FIRST to clients. Why? Because they are behaviors upon which other behaviors can be built.
- Behavior cusps are more about the person accessing New Contingencies & Environments (not behaviors).
- Pivotal behaviors are more about the person experiencing corresponding changes in other Untrained Behaviors (not contingencies & environments).
When creating goals for intervention for clients, you should select Behavior Cusps & Pivotal behaviors to teach them.
It is true that the person meeting with new contingencies & environments often will lead to new behaviors, so for that reason, a lot of times, these terms become AKAs for each other.
A behavior that, once learned, PRODUCES corresponding modifications or COVARIATIONS IN other adaptive UNTRAINED Bxs.
*Relates to treatment of people with autism and developmental disabilities
AKA: derived relations
Enhancing comprehension of NEW material DUE TO PREVIOUS learning.
Through teaching material to ensure the client is FLUENT with the material and through teaching the client behavior CUSPS and PIVITOL behaviors.
4 functions of problem behavior
Coercive, PUNISHMENT based interventions often selected arbitrarily.
Ex: "Go to your room!"
FBA Methods Pyramid
Descriptive Direct Assessment
AKAs: Experimental Analysis, Analog assessment.
The ONLY FBA method that allows us to CONFIRM HYPOTHESES regarding functional relations between behaviors and environmental events.
#Highest level of control
Antecedent & consequences are arranged (manipulated) so that their separate effects on behavior can be observed.
"Gold Standard" of assessment procedures.
Extended Functional Analysis- the type of functional analysis talked about above.
Brief Functional Analysis- A brief version of the extended functional analysis explained here.
4 Typical original conditions of functional analysis
1. Contingent Attention(AKA: Social Disapproval Condition)
2. Contingent Escape(AKA: Academic Demand Condition, this can also be called demand)
4. Control(AKA: Play condition)
Contingent Attention tests for
Contingent Escape tests for
Alone Condition tests for
undifferentiated pattern means
1. inconclusive results
2. problem behavior is maintained by automatic reinforcement
brief functional analysis
conducting a functional analysis in a sort period of time
each condition is run for 10 minutes.
direct descriptive FBA
direct observation of problem behavior under natural conditions.
events are not arranged in a systematic manner.
3 data collection methods for descriptive FBA's
1. abc continuous recording
2. abc narrative recording
3. scatter plot
ABC Continuous recording
record occurrences of targeted problem behaviors and selected environmental events within the natural routine during a specified period of time.
the probability that a target behavior will occur in a specific circumstance.
taken from ABC data.
reported in decimal form, not percentages.
ABC Narrative Recording
data are collected only when behaviors of interest are observed.
Recording is #OpenEnded and like telling a
aka: pattern analysis
procedure for recording the extent to which a target behavior occurs more often at particular times than others.
identifying potential events in the natural setting that correlate with the challenging behavior by gathering information from others who know the individual displaying the challenging behavior very well.
Using rating scales, checklists, structured interviews.
aka: functionally equivalent behaviors
Your intervention MUST match the function of the behavior.
Why is defining target behaviors so important in ABA?
definitions are required for replication.
3 characteristics of good operational definitions
2 procedures for identifying effective reinforcers
1. stimulus preference assessment
2. reinforcer assessment
stimulus preference assessment
identifies stimuli that are likely to function as reinforcers
3 basic methods of stimulus preference assessment
1. asking about stimulus prefernces
2. free-operant observation
3. trial-based methods
asking about stimulus prefernces
Involves asking the target person or significant others what they want to earn for completing the task.
- Open-ended questions (orally or written)
- Choice format: "Which would work for you?"
- Ranking object list
-Has limited language skills. Pictures can be presented. nobs and points to desired item.
recording what activities a person engages in when they can choose during a period of unrestricted access to numerous activities.
- Contrived __________ __________ Observation
- Naturalistic __________ __________ Observation
contrived free operant observation
the practitioner fills the environment with a variety of items that the person may like to engage with.
naturalistic free operant observation
conducted in the learners everyday environment as unobtrusively as possible. observer records how the person allocates his/her time with each activity.
Trial based methods
stimuli are presented to the learner in a series of trials and the learner's response to the stimuli are measured as an index of preference.
3 ways to measure a learners behavior
a- approach: any detectable movement towards the stimuli
c- contact: touching or holding the item
e- engagement: total time or percentage of intervals in which the person interacts with the item.
3 types of trial based methods
P-paired stimulus(aka: forced choice)
s-single stimulus(aka: successive choice)
AKA: forced choice
simultaneous presentation of 2 stimuli
simultaneous presentation of an array of 3 or more stimuli
can be with replacement or without replacement
AKA: successive choice
stimulus presented one at a time in random order and the person's reaction to each stimulus is recorded.
most basic method for assessing reference.
3 Reinforcer Assessment
a variety of direct, data based methods used to present one or more stimuli contingent on a target response and then measuring the future effects on the rate of responding.
(C_ooper M_arried P_avlov)
- Concurrent Schedual
- Multiple Schedule
- Progressive ration schedule
concurrent schedule reinforcer assessment
-Two or more contingencies of reinforcement operate independently and simultaneously for 2 or more behaviors.
-Puts 2 stimuli #Against each other to see which will produce the #Larger Increase In Responding when presented as a consequence for responding.
-Shows the relative effectiveness of High preference (HP) and Low preference (LP) stimuli as reinforcers.
-Think MATCHING LAW.
#2 stimuli agains each other
#2 reinforcers, 1 choice
multiple schedule reinforcer assessment
-Consists of presenting 2 or more component schedules of reinforcement for a #Single response, with only one competence schedule.
-An SD signals the presence of each component schedule and that stimulus is present as long as the schedule is in effect.
#2 or more schedules for a single response
#Not At The Same Time
progressive ration schedule reinforcer assessment
-Provides a framework for assessing the relative effectiveness of a stimulus as reinforcement as response requirements #INCREASE.
-Requirements for reinforcement are #Increased Systematically over time independent of the participant's behavior.
ex: was at an FR1 schedule, now we're at a FR2.
AKA: ABA assessment
The observer conducts direct and repeated observations of client behavior in the natural environment. All behaviors of interest and their antecedents and consequences are recorded.
ex: teacher recording a students behaviors in the classroom.
relevance of behavior rule
- a target behavior should be selected only when it can be determined that the behavior is likely to produce reinforcement in the person's natural environment
- is used to determine the degree to which a behavior will be functional for people in their natural environment after treatment ends.
Four sources of information on the likelihood of success are:
-The research literature on changing this behavior
-The experience of the practitioner with the target behavior
-The ability to control variables in the environments
- and the available resources for implementing and maintaining the intervention.
It is important for behavior definitions to be defined explicitly so that:
other behavior analysts can replicate your work,
in order to achieve accurate and reliable measurement,
and to compare data across studies.
However, explicit behavior definitions are not relevant to agreement between assessment and intervention data. Typically, these data do not agree because the purpose of intervention is to change the behavior.
designates responses as members of the targeted response class solely in terms of their common effect on the environment.
A _____________ __________ behavior encompasses all relevant forms of a response class in terms of their effect on the environment.
Altering Antecedent Variables
change and/or eliminate
- motivating operation for problem behavior
- S-D that triggers behavior
The primary reason for conducting a functional analysis is:
To test hypotheses generated via indirect and descriptive assessments.
Functional analysis is the only FBA method that allows you to test hypotheses you have generated using other FBA assessments. Descriptive and indirect assessments are used to formulate hypotheses, which are then tested via functional analysis. ABC assessments allow you to observe the behavior in the naturally occurring routine, and scatterplots can be used to identify temporal patterns of behavior. These are both descriptive forms of assessment that allow for hypothesis development, but not hypothesis testing.
Sets with similar terms
Pass the Big ABA Exam: Section 4- Assessment
Section 4: Assessment
PTBABA Section 4
Assessment Chapter 9 Vocabulary
Other sets by this creator
Pass the Big ABA Section 7- GRAPHS
Collective #14: Assessments
Collective 12 & 13: BCBA Exam
Collective #11: BABE Exam
Other Quizlet sets
OBM S1 Craniofacial development
Wellness Chapter 7