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Motor Behavior Comps

Terms in this set (50)

- Reinforcement Learning - action or long sequence of smaller actions that leads either to a success and thus reward, or a failure and thus no reward/punishment.; process of adjusting behaviors based on errors to optimize rewards -Reward-prediction errors (difference between actual and predicted outcome): unexpected outcomes produce the largest
- Dopamine enhances consolidation of the memory in rats (Rossato et al., 2009)
- What enhances dopamine? Monetary rewards increase dopamine transmission in the basal ganglia to reward prediction error.
- Give positive augmented feedback about correct movement patterns.
- we learn when our outcomes deviate from expectation s- prediction error
- motivation increases with increased reward
- maximize your reward prediction error to increase the weight of the reward associated with a successful outcome and increase EEG response; if you are able to succeed less often, the times that you do will feel more impactful and meaningful pushing you to repeat the task
- individualize the difficulty of practice to decrease the predictability of success
- provide positive feedback following a good trial outcome
- rewards can be: physical, symbolic, abstract - must be tailored to the individual and the situation
- Implicit learning is the learning of complex information in an incidental manner, without awareness of what has been learned
- apply the reinvestment theory in which the propensity for consciousness to control movements on-line is a function of individual personality differences, specific contexts and a broad range of contingent events that can be psychological, physiological, environmental or even mechanical.
- one's knowledge learned is above their ability to explain and because you do not have to explain it to yourself during performance the distraction of pressure is less impactful on skill outcome - essentially the skill is less susceptible to conscious control
- can increase with an analogy approach decreasing declarative knowledge- Implicit learning is the accrual of knowledge that is always ahead of the capability of its processor to explicate
- Implicit learning may not lead to good performance during practice but will improve during situations of high pressure.
- Participants expecting to teach learn the skill better explicitly with more declarative knowledge (free recall of all concepts).
- From re-investment theory, learning more explicitly increases the chance of choking under pressure.
- Contextual Interference: Training in a random way creates a contextual interference effect leading to poor practice performance but higher learning in the post-test/ retention
- CI is not limited to Laboratory tasks, to task outcomes, to young adults (college age participants), to Motor learning alone, or to learners who expected their performance
- CI effect behavior is also demonstrated in Neurocognitive process
- random learning is better than blocked, while you may preform worse during practice, your test results are ----typically better when you learn a skill randomly; this approach can be hard for kids because not seeing progress causes them to become frustrated and disinterested BUT in adults who understand that they are still working towards the same goal it is effective
- explained by two theories:
- elaborate-distinctiveness in which side-by-side comparison helps solidify learning
- forgetting-reconstruction in which you "relearn" the skill each time with the random setting
- it may be helpful if starting with no experience to start with blocked learning and then moved to random as you want to create the optimal level of challenge for learner

Motivation
- motivation matters consider: drive, cause for learning, consequences, psychological/behavioral perspective
- people who believe in the possibility of incremental theories of change over time understand that your skill will not simply be learned one day but will change over time - they tend to have more motivation to pursue the learning of a skill and are more dedicated
- motor feedback influences one's motivational state and when this increases following good trials you tend to have increased intrinsic motivation and better performance
- want feedback after good trials to maximize learning
- extrinsic < intrinsic motivation (self-determination theory: relatedness, autonomy, and competence)
- want task relevant feedback
- promote a mastery climate by framing feedback +/-/+
- Adults should attempt to move more and sit less throughout the day. They should do 150-300 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise and 75-150 minutes per week of vigorous intensity exercise. It is also suggested that adults should do muscle strengthening exercises +2 days a week.
- Children should participate in moderate-vigorous physical activity every day for at least one hour. The specific areas to address are aerobic, muscle strengthening and bone strengthening. Each area should be addressed at least three days a week.
- preschool - 60 min structured play and 60 min unstructured play (50 % meet rec)
-few adults ( about 20 %) and children (12% F and 30 % M) meet exercise recommendations

Motivational Theories:
Biological
- genetic behavior influences PA engagement
- suggests PA is caused by biological and physiological processes
- twin studies
- your temperament or innate disposition to act one way may influence your PA engagement
- consider how the environment may trigger gene activation and how certain genes may impact exercise and athleticism
- not much support for this argument in the literature and lots of conflicting data and research
determinants: sex, genter, race, ethnicity, genetic makeup, age
- epigenetics suggests that your genetic makeup give you a propensity to engage in PA

Psychological
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
- albert bandura
- interplay of environment behvioral factors and personal factors
- outcome expectancies influence one's motivation
- self regulation
- extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation
- self efficacy
- encourages mastery experience, the use of imagery and verbal persuasion ot increase one's outcome --- -- - expectancies and overall performance
- set small incremental goals to monitor and reinforce behavior
BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS
- humans are "predictably irrational"
- consumers are emotional and can be persuaded
- consider fast and slow thinking systems depending on the decision someone is facing and how they might digest information provided
12 principles:
- anchoring (provide a hard sell initially to engage and - anchor customer)
- availability bias (focus on what easily comes to mind)
- chunking(limited # of things one can digest)
-confirmation bias (look for answers you want)
- endowment bias (overvalue what you are emotionally invested in)
- framing (display matters)
- hedonic application (pleasure from something wears off after time)
- loss aversion (ppl respond to losses more than a gain)
- reciprocity bias (subconscious need to give back when something is received)
- relativity bias (consumer has no fixed concept of true value)
- scarcity (less there are the more people want it)
- social proof (look at other to guide decision making)

Social and Cultural
- SOCIAL NORMS - consider stereotypes and acceptable and expected actions for a group or community - how do you change these standards?
- SOCIAL SUPPORT - creating a community of change is effective, want a group of peopl striving towards the same goal; sociogram idea
- CULTURAL SENSITIVITY - consider behavior, beliefs, and characteristics of a particular group and how this could impact their motivation and perceptions about an action or change
- attitude vs. value
- PA expectations and beliefs matter and change depending on the culture
- consider how some people might respond to different interventions and suggestions if they go against the - --- norms of their communitySOCIAL MARKETING
- product
- place
- price
- promotion
- must address psychological and emotional characteristics in this situation as well

HABIT FORMATION
-a regulatory repeated behavior that continues without thought
- formed without intent
- cycle of: reward -> reminder -> routine -> reward etc
need antecedent
- willpower is not enough
- visualization through guided imagery helps
- operant conditioning: punishment (+/-) and reinforcement (+/-)
- FUN THEORY
- people want to do things they enjoy consider intensity, social and cultural facilitation
- The connection of the basal ganglia shows the presence of a motor loop starting from the cortex, then passing through the basal ganglia back into the cortex. This suggests that the basal ganglia is a higher motor centre which controls cortical motor functions. Also, experiments have shown that neurons in basal ganglia discharge prior to actual movements ( similar to that of cerebellar hemispheres).
- **Thus , we can conclude that the function of the basal ganglia is related to planning and programming of movements. Thus, basal ganglia is required for skilled movements.**
- The caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia is concerned with cognitive control of movements.
- The Basal ganglia are involved in maintaining muscle tone, automatic associated movements.
- The Prefrontal circuit is concerned with cognitive functions and oculomotor circuit controls saccadic movements.
- The motor components of the basal ganglia, together with the substantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus, comprise a subcortical loop that links most areas of the cerebral cortex with upper motor neurons in the primary motor and premotor cortices and in the brainstem. The neurons in this loop modulate their activity mainly at the beginning and ending of movement sequences, and their influences on upper motor neurons are required for functional regulation of voluntary movements. When one of these components of the basal ganglia or associated structures is compromised, the motor systems cannot switch smoothly between commands that initiate and maintain a movement and those that terminate the movement. The disordered movements that result can be understood as a consequence of maladaptive upper motor neuron activity that results from dysregulation of the control provided by the basal ganglia.
- Leadership is "the process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal"
- A leader provides vision and is more concerned with the direction of an organization, including its goals and objectives
-Appointed or prescribed leaders are individuals appointed by some authority to a leadership position (e.g., health club manager, coach, head athletic trainer).
- Emergent leaders are individuals who emerge from a group and take charge (e.g., captain of an intramural team, student leader of an exercise class).

- Leadership Approaches:
- Trait approach - Key question: What personality characteristics are common in great leaders?
- view leadership solely from the perspective of the leader themself
- consider leadership traits to be innate
- Behavioral approach - Key question: What are the universal behaviors (not traits) of effective leaders?
- reminds leaders that their actions toward others occur on a task level and a relationship level. In some situations, leaders need to be more task oriented, whereas in others they need to be more relationship oriented.
- situational approach - Personal and situational factors need to be considered in order to understand effective leadership.
- asserts that there is no one best way to lead others and emphasizes that a leader's style and behavior should depend on the characteristics of his or her followers
- Interactional approach - Relationship- and task-oriented leaders compared
- must consider how the task and environment informs and shapes the leader
A. Influential theories/previous studies
- understanding that behavioral development is motor development
B. Assumptions of the model
- emphasize the interdependence between the individual and their environment
- Development does not proceed in a vacuum. Infants and children develop in a physical environment, and learning by doing involves exploration of the environment
- The variable nature of the environment requires that actions be flexible and adaptive.
C. Key model components
- possibilities for action depend on the fit between the current status of the body and the environment. Since the body and environment are continually in flux, affordances for action are also continually changing. Children learn to choose appropriate actions by perceiving and generalizing affordances for action. The process involves learning to learn rather than learning fixed solutions
D. Potential limitations of the model
- intraindividual variability and understanding of a situation
- cultural affordances and experiences may promote one type of development over another making it hard to draw direct comparisons between societies
- Cross-cultural comparisons show that growing up in other cultures leads to other paths of development. Human motor behavior is far more varied and malleable than is generally appreciated, and cultural variation in basic childrearing practices contribute to variable patterns of motor development.
E. Empirical support for the model
- visual cliff paradigm
-Influential theories/previous studies
A. Influential theories/previous studies
- follows the understanding of motor skill acquisition
- after you understand basic movement development you must then explore how these new skill impact the individual both in the short and long term
B. Assumptions of the model
- Assumes that motor development can instigate a cascade of events that leads to learning and development in areas seemingly far afield from motor behavior and at time points far removed from the initiating event
- motor experience can facilitate developmental change in perceptual, cognitive, and social domains. The evidence has awaited a change in zeitgeist from considering only single domains of development at a time to considering development of the whole baby in context
- new locomotor skills similarly instigate a cascade of developmental changes
C. Key model components
- one's physical and motor development directly influences their psychological, cognitive and emotional development. As you learn to do new actions, you begin to interact with the world more. this requires increased processing and understanding of the sensations that you experience
- without certain experiences you may not be able to engage in future actions to their full extent - kinda like neuromotor idea of
D. Potential limitations of the model
- Causal developmental links do not imply a linear causal chain: "For want of a nail, the kingdom was lost" or for want of self-generated object exploration, object cognition is lost. The developmental pathways are more reticulate, more redundant, more context specific, and more plastic than that.
- it is hard to understand temporally, and hard to make assumptions or prove causality over such a large period of time with so many potential variables
E. Empirical support for the model
- Several lines of evidence support a causal developmental cascade rather than general maturation. Artificial motor experience instigates the same stream of developmental events. Prereaching infants who get a few weeks of self-generated experience retrieving objects with the help of "sticky mittens," Velcro-covered mittens that attach to objects without grasping, show short and long-term advances in reaching, grasping, and visual exploration of objects and people. A few weeks of training with posture and object interaction improves reaching, object exploration, and means-ends problem solving.
- Simply performing a manual action (whether natural or with sticky mittens) for a few minutes prior to viewing a display leads to increased mental rotation abilities, visual anticipation of the outcomes of other people's actions and enhanced attention to other people's intentions during goal-directed manual actions, other people's actions on the same objects, features that distinguish one object from another, and causal relations between objects
- motor development can both impede and enhance perception and cognition. Presitters and experienced sitters process faces holistically, but the acquisition of sitting appears to interfere with face processing
A. Influential theories/previous studies
- Even the current conception of development adopted by those working from the dynamic systems perspective is that there is no necessary teleology, or goal-directed nature, to development
B. Assumptions of the model `
- becoming an adaptive, skilled and autonomous actor in the environment is the product of development.
- Development is cumulative. When climbing a mountain, the choices made at a lower elevation will influence the nature and range of choices that may be made higher up. The path up the mountain builds upon itself, forming a foundation for continued progress towards the peak. Likewise, in motor development, both physiological maturity and experience are parts of the history of the developing system that provide a functional basis for later elaboration of the motor repertoire.
- most important is the interaction of nature and nurture
- developmental progress is seen as the result of a process in which changing constraints interact and self-organize yielding a cumulative and sequential pattern of developing motor skills
C. Key model component
- six major periods in motor skill development. Beginning around the third gestational month, these periods are (1) reflexive, (2) preadapted, (3) fundamental patterns, (4) context-specific, (5) skillful, and (6) compensation
- autonomy is the goal of development
- reflexive - neonate's adjustment to the external world; divided into pre and post natal periods
preadapted - starts with the onset of voluntary movement NOT the disappearance of reflexive behaviors; species-typical sequence that characterize a progressive mastery of the body in a gravitational environment; primary goal of the preadapted period is the achievement of independent function; emergence of manipulative skills
- fundamental patterns - patterns are further elaborated into the "building blocks" of later context-specific motor skills. The overall goal of this period is to build a sufficiently diverse motor repertoire that will allow for later learning of adaptive, skilled actions that can be flexibly tailored to different and specific movement contexts.
- context-specific - begins to impose additional task constraints on how, where and why
- skillful - With enough dedicated practice and experience, the individual soon will pass from context-specific competence to skill. The goal of this period is the achievement of skillful behavior. Motor skill is characterized as being voluntary, efficient and adaptive (Clark, 1994; 1995). Once true skill is achieved, the performer can apply their behavior with maximum certainty in a variety of contexts and situations
- compensation - Compensation implies that a part of a system is not performing up to standard and the rest of the system must adapt in order to accomplish the goal.
D. Potential limitations of the model
- Metaphorical in application and concept
- hard to universally apply in all settings
- atypical developmental patterns
E. Empirical support for the model - no studies bc all metaphorical
A. Influential theories/previous studies
- previous research has failed to consider the dynamic and synergistic role that motor skill competence plays in the initiation, maintenance, or decline of physical activity and how this role might change across developmental time
- the limited advancement in solving this complex problem has been the result of the lack of (a) an interdisciplinary and developmental approach in examining physical activity behaviors; (b) consideration that children's motor skill competence plays a highly significant yet varying role in supporting physical activity behaviors; (c) understanding of how perceived motor skill competence, health-related physical fitness, and obesity, as mediating variables, have differential associations to physical activity across developmental time (i.e., early childhood, middle childhood, Motor Competence and Physical Activity 291 and adolescence); and (d) appropriate measurement of motor skill competence in previous studies
B. Assumptions of the model `
- contends that the development of motor skill competence is a primary underlying mechanism that promotes engagement in physical activity.
- Our hypothesis that the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity will strengthen over time
C. Key model components
- At the heart of our conceptual model is a reciprocal and developmentally dynamic relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity
- perceived motor skill competence changes over time; as one ages they compare to peers and may pull back from PA engagement because of a fear of not performing as well as others
- We believe the acquisition of motor skill competence in FMS in early childhood (2-5 years of age) serves to promote physical fitness, because time spent initially developing these skills promotes increased physical activity and neuromotor development
- we believe that there is a dynamic and reciprocal relationship between obesity and the four factors within the model (physical activity, motor skill competence, perceived motor competence, and physical fitness). We propose that, over time, there will be a positive spiral of engagement with high motor skill competence, higher perceptions of motor skill competence, greater physical activity, and higher levels of health-related physical fitness promoting a healthy weight status.
D. Potential limitations of the model
- We recognize that these relationships are embedded in and influenced by other contextual factors (environment, family, peers, socioeconomic status, culture, nutrition, self-efficacy, etc.) that affect an individual's opportunity to be active. Thus, there is one additional question to ask: Will the strengths of these relationships continue to increase over the lifespan (i.e., throughout adolescence and adulthood)? Or, will other factors change the nature of these relationships as we age? As multidisciplinary teams attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms influencing physical activity, we urge them to consider the dynamic and developmental issues proposed in our conceptual model.
E. Empirical support for the model
- Motor skill competence was positively associated with physical activity and perceptions of adequacy in performing and inversely associated with sedentary activity. Wrotniak, Epstein, Dorn, Jones, and Kondilis (2006) examined the relationship among motor skill competence using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP), children's self-perceptions of adequacy in performing and desire to participate in physical activity, and physical activity
- reported that overweight children had significantly lower actual and perceived motor skill competence than non-overweight children.
- These studies provide indirect support for the idea that perceived motor skill competence is amediating variable that differentially influences the relationship between the development of actual motor skill competence and physical activity over time. We believe, however, that actual motor skill competence is the limiting factor in our model in middle to late childhood because of the fact that perceived competence is, in effect, an indirect measure of actual motor skill competence in older children
- Recent cross-sectional data have provided promising results on the relationship between aspects of health-related physical fitness and motor skill competence in both young adults and children
- look at paper or more studies supporting model
- Proficiency barrier defined as Inability to move from the Fundamental Movement Skill Phase to the Specialized Skill Phase due to lack of proficiency in locomotor, manipulative or stability skill(s)
- Proficiency has been suggested as an important aspect of motor skill development. Seefeldt (1980) argued that if fundamental motor patterns were not acquired, children would encounter difficulties, a "proficiency barrier," when trying to learn later motor skills that would lead to skillfulness.
- Copied from Stodden et al.: "Two models of motor development have emphasized the importance of functional motor skills (FMS) in later physical activity (Clark & Metcalfe, 2002; Seefeldt, 1980). Over two decades ago Seefeldt suggested that competency in FMS was necessary to break through a hypothetical "proficiency barrier" that would allow individuals to apply these FMS to sports and games. Our experiences with children over the years have led us to share Seefeldt's perspective, yet there is no empirical evidence to support this developmental view. More recently, Clark and Metcalfe (2002) spoke of the "mountain of motor development" and suggested that FMS are a precursor to context-specific and skillful movement. That is, to reach the "top of the mountain" of motor development and be physically skillful and active, children must first acquire competency in FMS to apply these skills in different contexts (e.g., sports and lifetime activities). Clearly, FMS are an important stepping-stone to motor development and, we believe, lifelong physical activity."