Nursing care of Adults Final exam blueprint

Outline the relationship between comfort and other concepts
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Terms in this set (32)
*include teaching patients about lifestyle changes that can help decrease their symptoms of pain, depression, or fatigue.
*teaching include sleep hygiene, psychosocial well being, and relaxation therapy.
*lifestyle habits that help individuals with chronic health alterations, poor nutrition, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor sleep hygiene.
*don't smoke, drugs, alcohol
Risk factors for hip fractures*the greatest risk is old age, and osteoporosis *decreased muscle mass, vision, and balance problems, and having a slower reaction time. *women after menopause are at an increased risk of developing osteoporosis, and have a 70% of all hip fractures *chronic medical conditions that cause fragile bones, such as endocrine disorders, intestinal disorders, or cancer, some medication that weaken bone or cause dizziness, nutritional problems such as eating disorders, lack of vit D, physical inactivity, Tabaco use and alcohol use.Prevention of hip fractures*weight bearing exercises daily, reduce fall hazards in the home, adequate lighting, good shoes, (no slippers), *bone health make sure you have calcium and vitamin D, through supplementsAnalyze the physiology of oxygenation in the body*the respiratory system obtains oxygen from the air and transports it into the alveoli, where oxygen diffuses into capillaries an dis carried by the blood to all cells of the body. *trachea to the bronchioles to alveoli (terminal structures of the lower respiratory system. is the site where a lot of the gas exchange happens. (read on pg. 1022)Identify the clinical manifestations of pneumonia*coughing is a major sign, mucus production, shortness of breath, or dyspnea (difficulty breathing), hypoxia that may lead to apnea, hemoptysis (bloody sputum, and chest pain *fever, loss of appetite, malaise, cyanosis,Compare the risk factors for Lung cancer*SMOKING *the more a patient smokes and the longer the patient smokes the greater the risk *smokers that have quit smoking for a number of years have a higher risk for developing lung cancer, than those who have never smoked *exposer to radiation, inhaled irritants, asbestos, exposer to radonPrevention of Lung Cancer*there has been a link to smoking and lung cancer, prevention of lung cancer is highly dependent on refraining from or stopping smoking *minimizing your exposer to irritants,Outline the relationship between perfusion and other concepts*oxygenation and perfusion affects the transport of respiratory gases to the tissue of our body *when a patient is having alterations and imparment of these two they may experience decrease energy, restlessness, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypertension, and confusion *monitor vital signs, use high-fowlers positioning, if able, encourage deep breathing, administer o2, and provide periods of rest between activitiesApply the nursing process in providing culturally competent care to an individual (related to fluid volume)*Restrict fluids if ordered *monitor intake and output, at least 30ml/hr *weigh the patient at the same time each day, *monitor abdominal girth every shit *assess respiratory status and lung sounds at least every hoursApply the nursing process in providing culturally competent care to an individual with Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)*elevate their legs while they are resting and during sleep *walk as much as possible, but avoid sitting or standing for long periods of time *when sitting, do not cross the legs or allow pressure on the back of the knees *wear elastic hose as prescribed, remind them not to wear anything that may pinch their legsClinical manifestations of liver disease*when we have an enlarged liver, may be tender, so the patient may have some tenderness in the liver area. *weight loss, weakness, and anorexia *portal hypertension means is the restricted blood flow through the liverRisk factors for leukemia*men are affected more frequently than women *patients that have undergone treatment for cancer, chemotherapy or radiation therapy *the cause of Leukemia is unknown, there is a high risk and those that have had exposure to infectious agents *those that have genetic disorders such as chromosomal defects, cigarette smoking, and exposures to chemicals, and high dose ionizing radiationApply the nursing process in providing culturally competent care to an individual with leukemia- protect from injury related to bleeding*bleeding is the second most common cause of leukemia death as their platelets count decrease (thrombocytopenia), and the risk of bleeding increases *instruct the patients to avoid forceful blowing or picking of the nose, forceful coughing, sneezing, and straining to have a bowl movement *monitor and promptly report abnormal blood lab *asses their vital signs *avoid invasive procedures on out patients that have thrombocytopenia *if they have injections or blood drawn we need to apply pressure to the site for at least 3-5 minutes, because they don't have the platelets to clot and they are at risk of bleedingWhat are the signs of Thrombocytopenia*bruising in our patients, bleeding gums, bleeding with specific organs, they might have bleeding within certain tissues,Explain the promotion of healthy tissue integrity*skincare maintenance are important for preventing many infectious skin disorders *we want our skin to be kept clean and dry, moisturized *when there are wounds we want to make sure to keep those wounds clean and covered to decrease the risk of infection *medications such as corticosteroids can cause thinning of the skin and it make more easily injured *many medications increase sensitivity to sunlight, and can predispose an individual to sunburns, more common with antibioticsDescribe the etiology of skin cancer*the UV radiation from sunlight, tanning beds,Describe the phases of wound healing*Primary intention healing: occurs where the tissue surfaces have been approximated (closed), and there's minimal to no tissue loss ex: staples, tapes, tissue adhesive, or glue *Secondary intention: is when the wound is much more extensive and involves considerable tissue, where the wound edges cannot or should not be approximated needs to be left open, so it can heal from the bottom up. ex: pressure ulcer, sutures, staples, and adhesive skin closures, healing time is longer, more scaring, and more susceptibility to infection than primary intention *Tertiary intention healing: when the wound is left open for a period of time usually for approx: 3-5 days, so it can allow the edema to go down, and the infection to be resolve, or the drainage to drain and then after the 3-5 days it is closed with sutures, staples or tissue adhesive.Apply the nursing process in providing culturally competent care to an individual with a wound- nursing diagnosis- infection*so absolutely anytime somebody has a break in their skin exposure to microorganisms are at risk, and certainly the patient is at risk for infection. *if the skin wounds are severe the patient is immunocompromised or the wound is cause by trauma the potential for infection is much greater *Two main aspects to controlling wounds infections: preventing microorganisms for entering the wound and preventing the transmission of bloodborne pathogens between the patient and othersDifferentiate care of patients with delirium*any changes from the patients baseline is considered significant *is the most prominent manifestation of conditions such as dehydration, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, urinary retention, and adverse drug events *they may occur in the absence of symptoms such as fever, or discomfort *having prompt recognition of these symptoms that change in management of delirium is essential because of the risk of long term disability and death that increase in older adultsDescribe the pathophysiology of delirium*the exact physiology is unknown *metabolic *imbalances trauma *nutritional *deficiencies *central nervous system disease *hypoxia *hyperthermia (which is low temperature, but also fever or high temp, also called hyperthermia *acute circulatory problems *low blood glucose *toxin exposures *sleep deprivation *drug and alcohol use and withdrawal from drugs and alcohol *hospitalized patient are at high risk for developing deliriumDescribe the risk factors and preventions of delirium*anyone can develop delirium, but age is a major risk factor *age related, vision and hearing loss *cognitive decline *the use of drugs and alcohol, or prescribed medications *having chronic illness, onset of a new illness, or exacerbate of a current condition *Prevention: reducing the incidence of physiologic and psychological factors that lead to deliriumClinical manifestations of delirium*reduced awareness, impaired thinking skills, and changes in activity levels, and behavior *look on page 1741 table 23-10Differentiate alterations in metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus