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Final Pediatric Questions
Terms in this set (64)
What is the most important aspect of bicycle safety?
Encourage children to wear protective helmets
Why is it important to obtain a sexual history of adolescents?
Obtaining sexual history can be important in promoting sexual health and preventing STI's and unplanned pregnancies.
How should sexual screening be approached for adolescents?
- use the term "partner" instead of "boyfriend" or "girlfriend"
- ask about methods to prevent STIs/pregnancy
- ask about sexual history (# of partners)
- ask about alcohol or other substances connected with sexual activity
Which vaccine should adolescents receive to help prevent STI development around 11-12 years old?
HPV vaccine (2-3 shot series)
T/F: as a nurse, our goal with counseling adolescents on sexual activity is to not tell them anything at this age
False: it is our responsibility to educate them on reducing risk of pregnancy/STI and to provide positive reinforcement on responsible sexual behavior
What is the name of the most common condition where edematous tissue is present over the portion of the scalp that presents with vertex ?
What condition is characterized by a collection of blood beneath the periosteum of the cranial vault bone secondary to rupture of blood vessels between the skull and the periosteum?
What assessments are done on the newborn?
RAPP and APGAR
What does the APGAR score assess?
Activity (muscle tone), Pulses, Grimace (reflex irritability), Appearance (skin color), and Respirations
In what order is suctioning done on a newborn?
Mouth first, then nose
How are dry membranes/mucosa moistened? (Ex. Newborn nose/mouth)
Saline drops (ex. nose drops)
What is the cause of physiologic jaundice?
Hepatic function plus increased bilirubin load from RBC hemolysis
How soon does physiologic jaundice occur after birth?
After 24 hours (not before)
What is nursing care of a newborn with jaundice?
How would ear drops be administered to a 2 year old?
Pulling the pinna down and back (less than 3 years old)
How is urine collected from a non potty-trained child?
With urine collection bags
How should urine collection bags be used? (Females)
Stretch perineum taught to assure leak-proof fit
How should urine collection bags be used? (Males)
Place penis and sometimes scrotum inside bag
What is a common airway clearance technique (ACT) that is used for patients with cystic fibrosis?
Chest physical therapy (CPT)
What does treatment for cystic fibrosis focus on?
Lung health (prevent infection) and digestion/nutrition
What is Erickson's psychological development level of toddlers?
Autonomy vs shame and doubt
What are favorable outcomes of Erikson's psychological development?
Self-control and willpower
What should a patient with type 1 diabetes Hgb A1C be (<6 yrs)?
What should a patient with type 1 diabetes Hgb A1C be (6-12 yrs)?
What should a patient with type 1 diabetes Hgb A1C be (>12 yrs)?
What type of formula/milk should be given at 5 months age?
Commercial iron fortified formula (should be given until at least 6 months)
What is the best prevention for otitis media?
Routine immunizations with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
What type of pain assessment should be done at 18 months?
What are the parts of the FLACC scale?
Face expression, leg movement, activity, crying, and consolability
How many calories does a toddler require per day?
What are nutrition recommendations for toddlers?
2-3 servings of milk/day (500mg calcium/day)
Iron fortified cereals/iron rich foods
400IU of vitamin D (prevent rickets)
1c fruit/day for vitamin C
What is a risk for children with asthma concerning treatment plan and support of the family?
They may disregard their medication regimen or be neglected by adults in charge of care, or believe the asthma will "go away"
What are signs of dying in children?
- loss of sensation
- loss of senses
- muscle weakness
- loss of bowel/bladder control
- decreased appetite and thirst
- changes in respiratory pattern (Cheyene
What are teaching strategy for adolescents smoking cessation?
Strong community focus and consideration for nonsmoking strategies
What are inappropriate activities for children with epilepsy?
What should be done when a child is having a seizure?
time seizure, ease to floor, turn child to one side, place pillow under head, loosen restrictive
T/F: Benadryl should be applied over the skin for chicken pox
False: should not be applied topically due to toxicity from varicella (oral is permitted)
What is a potentially fatal complication for chemo drugs?
anaphylaxis (observe for 1 hr after infusion)
Who are candidates for bone marrow transplant?
Children who have diseases that require high doses of chemotherapy and replace them of dysfunctional bone marrow
What is optimum treatment of osteosarcoma?
Surgery and chemotherapy
How should hourly urine output be calculated?
(Weight in kg) x 1.5ml/hr = desired output per hour
How is diaper weight calculated?
What is gross motor development? (1 yr)
Walks with one hand held, may attempt to stand-alone momentarily or attempt the first step
What is fine motor development? (1 yr)
Releases Cube into cup, attempts to build to block tower but fails
What is sensory development? (1 yr)
Discriminate between simple geometric forms like circles and squares. Can follow a rapidly moving object
What is vocalization development? (1 yr)
Says three to five words besides "dada" and "Mama". Recognizes objects by name. Imitates animal sounds.
What is socialization and cognition development? ( 1 yr)
Shows emotions, such as jealousy, affection, anger, and fear. They are fearful in strange situations and clings to the parents. May develop a habit of a security blanket or favorite toy.
What is a rare but serious form of child abuse in which caregivers deliberately exaggerate or fabricate histories and symptoms or induce symptoms?
Munchausen Syndrome by proxy
What may provide rapid relief of increased intracranial pressure in emergency situations?
Osmotic diuretics (although their effect is transient, lasting only about 6 hrs, but can be life saving)
What is administered intravenously and is the drug most frequently used for rapid reduction of intracranial pressure?
Mannitol (generally given slowly but may be pushed rapidly in case of herniation)
What medication is prescribed for inflammatory conditions and edema?
What is an indication for using osmotic diuretics?
What medications are prescribed for seizure activity?
Sedatives or antiepileptic drugs
What combination of medications decreases ICP and allows treatment of cerebral edema?
Sedatives and anxiolytics (common morphine and midazolam)
What medication is reserved for the reduction of increased intracranial pressure when all else has failed?
What position is used for a lumbar puncture?
Side-lying position or flexed sitting
How do children walk with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy?
Hands up and the legs return to an upright position to demonstrate GOWER's sign
How should eye drops be administered to children?
Pull eyelid downward
Apply to conjunctival sac (not directly to eye ball)
Wipe away excess medication
What is an intrathecal baclofen?
Muscle relaxer administered directly into the spinal cord
What condition is an acute inflammation of the meninges and CSF?
What is general treatment of meningitis?
Antibiotics and isolation for 24 hours after antibiotic therapy
What are s/s of bacterial meningitis?
Neck stiffness (unchallenged rigidity)
What part of the body should be assessed for a patient in a hip spica cast?
Extremities for signs of compartment syndrome
What are the 6 P's?
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