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Terms in this set (187)
Which of the following terms is the BEST description for the structure labeled A:
What is the name of the enzyme that synthesizes DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides?
DNA polymerase III
The DNA polymerase enzyme can make mistakes and fix most of them. The mistakes that remain are called
in order for the enzyme DNA polymerase III to work the strands must be separated by an enzyme called _____. The enzyme only works in one direction because if it goes backward, it pulls out the molecules it just put together. This means one side of the new molecule is built continuously which is called the ______ and the other side is built in pieces which are called_______.
Helicase, Leading strand, okazaki fragments
which terms describes the asexual reproduction seen during bacterial replication?
What is the name of the process shown in the picture?
There is a box around the
There is a circle around the
At the end of this process what is made?
What is the "T shaped" structure in the picture?
The overall, entire process at the right that both the top and bottom part are showing is called
Number 3 are the
Number 4 is binding to the_________ on the DNA and is blocking ________
All of the parts of the DNA tht are bing shown in the rectangle with dashed lines are called an
Number 7 is
What event is occurring in the picture below at the area labeled "a"?
what event is occurring in the picture below at the area labeled "b"?
what event is occurring in the picture below at the area labeled "c"?
which term names a necessary structure when completing the process seen in "a"?
which term names a necessary structure completing the process seen in "b"?
if the resistance gene shown is able to move around by itself between plasmids, phage genome and wherever it feels like moving then it must be a
Bacterial cells that have the F plasmid incorporated into their chromosome and induce more than 1000x the genetic recombinations between bacterial cells are
which term refers to a cycle that is characterized by the penetration of virus particles into the host cell nucleic acid that will burst the bacterial host at the completion of the viral life cycle?
which type of plasmid is being shown in the picture?
The general name to describe the processes in a. b. and c. is
horizontal gene transfer
of the three processes seen in the picture, one is not as effective for transferring bacterial genes between cells. which one is it?
in Dr. Griffith's experiment concerning_________, he injected mice with a strain of rough pneumococcus and heat killed pneumococcus. He discovered that bacteria could absorb DNA from other bacteria that were dead. In this case , the gene to make a _____________ was definitely transferred from the ________, increasing the virulence of the organism.
transformation: capsule: heat killed to the rough
the _____________ is used to identify substance that are mutagenic. In order to do this, a bacterium that cannon synthesize_________is used. This bacterium is placed on a medium that does not contain histidine. This bacteria normally would not grow on this medium. When this organism is exposed to the suspected substance and it becomes altered, that means that now it synthesizes histidine.
Ames test: histidine
A silent mutation results from a change in the DNA sequence but the codon still codes for the same amino acid
a nonsense mutation can produce a wide range of effects from severe (protein won't function) to beneficial (protein cold work better)
feedback inhibition occurs at the DNA level of regulation
an example of a constitutive gene wold be one that codes for an enzyme needed in glycolysis
Frameshift mutations are the most severe mutations since they result in a shift of the reading frame on the mRNA which means codons downstream of the mutation are changed and result in an altered amino acid sequence.
a missense mutation will always result in a severely altered protein that will not be able to function.
using operons is beneficial for bacteria since it allows them to conserve energy and nutrients- they only use the genes when they need them
mutations are made in RNA
mutagens are always carcinogenic
the Ames test is used to classify substances that are always carcinogenic
You are working with S. aureus and have grown it on a mannitol salt plate. You write down that it ferments mannitol and that it is man+. which bold word indicates its phenotype?
You are working with S. aureus and have grown it on a mannitol salt plate. You write down that it ferments mannitol and that it is man+.
Which bold word indicates its genotype?
These molecules seal DNA back together?
production of human growth hormones
used to separate pieces of DNA according to size
these molecules cut the DNA at specific sites
this process results in many copies of DNA made
These molecules act as vectors to transfer genes
using microbes so they can bioremediation and help clean the environment
which scientist performed the first experiment to try to disprove spontaneous generation related to maggots?
which scientist performed experiments which finally disproved spontaneous generation using swan neck flasks?
which scientists were the first ones to do any kind of epidemiological study on how a disease is transmitted?
John Snow and Semmelweiss
which group of microbes best fit the characteristics of having microscopic life cycles?
which group of microbes best fit the characteristics of being all single celled organisms?
which group of microbes best fit the characteristics of being able to obtain nutrients through the decomposition of other living things?
a cell that has a cell wall, is spherical in shape with a diameter of 2um, has no nucleus, and thrives in mammalian intestines
a scientist is observing an organism that is multicellular whose cells have nuclei, cell walls, absorbs nutrients and was found on a rotting log. This organism is
certain strains of staphylococcus aureus are capable of causing gastroenteritis. infected individuals experience abdominal cramping, vomiting and diarrhea for about 24 hrs.E. coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis in humans and can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome. which of the following statements can be made from the above information?
E. coli O157:H7 is more virulent than S. aureus
Most microbes are in the size range of ______while viruses are in the range of ________
Molecular taxonomy refers to classifying organisms based on the sequence of certain molecules they possess genotypically. which of the following molecules is used?
you glance over at another student's paper while working on an assignment and you are horrified to see this: streptococcus Pyogenes var154
What is the correct way to write this bacterium's name?
S. pyogenes var 154
which of the following statements that best describes the general idea of Koch's postulates?
the postulates are rules/procedures for a scientist to follow if he she were trying to determine if a specific organism causes a particular disease
The bacterial cell below is doing negative chemotaxis. In this case, where would the chemical substance be in relation to the cell?
behind the flagella of the bacteria
a bacterium has the ability to store extra lipids. where will the lipids be stored?
The periplasm of gram + bacteria help the microbe to resist phagocytosis
Enzymes, that speed up all metabolic reactions in bacteria, do not undergo conformational changes when substrates bind to the active site
an enzyme isolated from a bacterium which thrives in hot spring will not function or will function slowly if it is kept at 4 degrees celsius since its metabolic reactions are slowed down
feedback inhibition can occur with either competitive or noncompetitive inhibitors
both penicillin and lysozyme affect peptidoglycan
most young cultures have pleomorphic morphologies, since they have not been incubated long enough
Which molecule has its shape due to amino acid interactions?
which molecule is made of necleotides?
which molecule is made as a result of gene expression?
which molecule could be an enzyme?
which molecule has genes?`
a plasmid is made of which molecule ?
which of the following choices is the correct equation for cellular respiration?
where in the bacterial cell does the Kreb's cycle occur?
in the cytoplasm
during cellular respiration, the fate of pyruvate is dependent on the availability of oxygen. If oxygen is present, the pathway undergoes ________. If the environment is anaerobic, pyruvate undergoes_______-
Propionibacterium acnes is a bacterium that is always present on our skin. when the glucose level of the blood and in the tissue fluid increases during puberty for example, this bacterium causes acne or folliculitis. which term would best describe this organism?
which of the following is true concerning the ID50 of a pathogen?
it is basically an estimate of the number of organisms needed yo cause infection in half of the population
which of the following is true when comparing infection with bacterium and infection with a virus
both organisms must enter a body and adhere to cells
all of these pairs of terms are showing a virulence factor providing an ability just like this:
factor --> ability However, one of these answers has incorrect information, which one is it?
hemolysin-->lysing white blood cells
which of the following terms refers to when you are determining the cause of a disease?
these organisms obtain nutrients by absorption, are extracellular and release toxins
these organisms obtain nutrients by phagocytosis and inhabit water and soil
these organisms grow well in acidic conditions, release keratinases and are dimorphic
these organisms can be combated by eosinophils
our innate immunity usually keeps these organisms from causing disease
these organisms can quickly change their antigens/release immonosuppressants
what does this picture represent?
what does this picture represent ?
all of the following statements are true concerning inflammation except...
in always results in a change in body temperature
what are the two events that result in erythema?
vasodilation and the injury of capillaries in the area
concerning phagocytosis, all bacteria are completely phagocytized- they never survive through phagocytosis
which of the following substance is not a molecule or substance that creates a chemotactic gradient?
a macrophage is 100% effective at phagocytizing all bacteria that enter the human body
are antibodies identical or diverse?
On the picture, which letter represents the Fc portion of the anitbody?
this class of antibody helps to stop or suppress an allergic response
this cell inhibits the immune system so it does not get out of control
This granulocyte releasee histamine
this molecule stimulates vasodilation,bronchoconstriction, and mucus production
these cells are anchored in tissue have finger like projections
the class of antibody that is made first in an immune response
the class of antibody that is released into the circulatory system
cells that are actively secreting antibodies
this chemical helps during a MAC attack to lyse the pathogen
these blood components release toxins against parasites/helminths
our immune system consists of 2 separate areas that do not collaborate with one another
in addition to a macrophage, other types of cells can also act as an APC
where/what does CD4 bind to?
which part of the immune system is the most effective at shutting down a vial infection?
cell mediated immunity
a secondary immune respons to an antigen results in higher levels of antibodies being produced
antibodies are not produced during a viral infection
surface MHC proteins are important in host cell to cell recognition to let each cell know they are part of the same host and to react to the antigen
it is harder for the immune system to fight fungi, protozoans and helminths
the lacrimal apparatus , found in our epidermis layer, lowers the pH of the skin
complement proteins can act in both a non specific and specific capacity
when an allergen causes a reaction throughout the body
what is the term for a Type I allergic response?
when a person encounters an allergen for the first time which they react to, they have become
contact dermatitis is which type of an allergic response?
imidazole is an antifungal drug that interferes with sterol synthesis in fungi. with the information that you have, you gather that its mode of antimicrobial action is probably best described as:
disruption of cell membrane function
which scientist came up with the term chemotherapy?
which scientist discovered penicillin
a physician wants to treat a bacterial respiratory infection and is not sure of the etiological agent. The physician would recommend:
a broad spectrum antibiotic
PABA is a precursor of folic acid which is needed to build nucleotides
acts as a competitive inhibitor
____________ bacteria are more sensitive to penicillin since penicillin_______
interferes synthesis of the small peptidoglycan layer
an antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis is interfering with which specific structure in bacterial cell?
concerning the periods of illness listed below, when is a patient infectious and able to transmit the disease?
all of the above
which of the following is not true concerning the use of antibacterial antibiotic
it can induce mutations which give rise to resistant organisms
which test will be performed when a physician wants to know the amount of antibiotic to prescribe to a patient?
the E test for MIC's
daptomycin increases the sensitivity of enterococci to vancomycin bky 68%. This is currently being investigated since it is feared that vancomycin resistant organisms will be increasing in frequency. this type of interaction between these drugs is called
five days after a patient left a hospital for some abdominal surgery, the incision became infected with pseudomonas aeruginosa. The patient was treated with oral and topical antibiotics. the infection was gone in one week. which terms can be applied?
What is the mode of transmission for camplylobacter jejuni?
what is the normal habitat for clostridium botulinum?
what type of microbe causes tuberculosis?
staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen
what is the tissue helicobacter pylori infects?
when the release of acetylcholine is prevented during botulism, are muscles in a contracted or relaxed state?
name the vector of yersinia pestis
which pair of terms describe an infection with neisseria gonorrhea
acute; transmitted by direct contract
this bacterium is sexually transmitted and is the leading cause of female reproductive problems. what is the name of this pathogen?
Neisseria gonorrhea is the 2nd most reported STD in the US. Select its virulence factor
the organism that usually infects the lymphatic system but can disseminate to the respiratory system is best describe by which pairs of terms:
which gram - enteric bacteria multiplies in vesicles and can cause food poisoning?
what type of organism is responsible for neonatal pneumonia and meningitis?
candida albicans is part of our normal microbes on our body but at times can cause disease when conditions are altered. what is the term for this?
which number is indicating the capsid?
which number is indicating the envelope?
which number is indicating the glycoprotein spikes?
this virus would be released from a host cell by what process?
is this virus naked or envoloped?
which terms applies to the small spheres on the virus
what is happening at c:
which step is specifically translation?
which two steps are showing maturation or assembly
E and F
describe what is happening at G
fusion, spikes are being put on the membrane
which letter represents budding and release?
which letter represents uncoating?
the group of viruses that can penetrate a cell via fusion or endocytosis are
which of the following can be used to describe a virion
all of the above
which of the following is not true concerning cytopathic effects
some are easily seen with alight microscope
the monomers used for these infectious agents are amino acids
these agents mainly infect plants but recently HDV in humans was recognized as this type of agen.
the mechanism of reproduction for this agent is that is changes a normally shaped molecule into a different shape
these agents produce spongiform encephalopathies
these agents are transmitted by insects related to plants
composed of one type of molecule
these agents are transmitted by contaminated meats/foods
the study of cancer is called
________are the normal cellular genes that initiate mitosis in eukaryotic cells. if these genes become mutated they are then called
accumulation of several mutations in a cell can push the cell to becoming _______ which means it can move to another location in the body. The name for this movement is____________-
receptors on host cells that a virus attaches to were made specifically for the virus
all RNA viruses are enveloped
sequelae are effect seen in an individual years later when a viral infection starts up agian
a persistant or chronic virus infection means that the infected individual is constantly releasing virus
a latent viral infection means the virus remains in the host cell without showing any signs of infection
only 2% of viruses are beneficial to humans
RNA viruses always have a single stranded genome
HPV infects which type of tissue?
this virus which is transmitted via direct contact, infects 95% of adults aged 35-40 infects and produces infectious mononucleosis infects which type of tissue?
some strains of this virus are sexually transmitted and are associated with cervical cancer
what is the name of the virus that causes an acute food or waterborne illness?
what virus has 8 different RNA segments that can be recombined if two strains infect the same host?
infectious mononucleosis can be caused by CMV and which other virus?
due to their ability to form plasmids in the host cell, these sexually transmitted viruses are life long infections
which virus has an incredible ability to infect lots of tissue types?
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