Embalming II Midterm

(Lessons 1.1 - 2.2)
1. List the 4 divisions of vascular embalming
(1) Delivery of the arterial solution into the artery - from the embalming machine through the connecting tubing and arterial tube; (2) Distribution of arterial solution - the movement of arterial solution from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries; (3) Diffusion of arterial solution - movement of arterial solution from inside the vascular system (intervascular) through the walls of the capillaries into the tissue spaces (extervascular); (4) Drainage - the discharge or withdrawal of blood and blood clots, embalming solution, interstitial and lymphatic fluids and blood from the body during vascular embalming
2. The general term which describes the passage of some components of the injected embalming solution from an intravascular to an extravascular location; or the movement of the embalming solutions from the capillaries into the interstitial fluids
Fluid Diffusion
3. The term which describes the movement of embalming solutions from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries
4. What percentage of the drainage from a body, may be embalming solution
About 50%
5. What are the components of drainage
Blood, arterial solution, interstitial fluid
6. Explain why/how interstitial fluid effects dehydration
Embalming solution present in the capillaries draws some tissue fluid with it into the drainage causing dehydration when more tissue fluid is being removed than is being replaced by embalming solution
7. List 2 examples of the physical application of arterial embalming
Filling the arterial system with forced injection under pressure; Control of drainage; Filtration (injected solution forced through walls of capillaries)
8. Is arterial solution hypotonic or hypertonic to tissue
9. List examples of intravascular resistance -
Obstructions: antemortem emboli and thrombi, postmortem coagula and thrombi;
Narrowing: arteriosclerosis, vasoconstriction, arteritis, intravascular rigor mortis
10. List examples of extravascular resistance -
~Rigor mortis ~Gas in the cavities ~Expansion of the hollow viscera during injection ~Tumors and swollen lymph nodes ~Ascites and hydrothorax ~Contact pressure ~Visceral weight ~Bandages ~Skeletal edema ~Inflammation
11. Briefly list 5 embalming procedures to follow for intravascular problems
Start with slow rate of flow to prevent coagula from floating free and clogging branches ~Inject from right common carotid when coagula are anticipated (to push coagula away from head and arms) ~Avoid sclerotic arteries (iliac and femoral) ~Use largest artery (common carotid, external iliac, femoral) ~Use proper size arterial tube
12. What is the result of resistance, as discussed by the author
Little or no resistance: tissue dehydration, reduced filtration, uneven distribution ~Total or great resistance: tissue distension, uneven distribution ~Movable resistance: blood removal is more complete, distribution is more uniform, more embalming solution is retained by the body with minimum tissue distension
13. List the 3 indicators that embalming solution is being distributed throughout the vascular system
Drop in volume; Differential pressure; Drainage
14. When the embalming solution is in the embalming machine and the rate of flow valve is closed, the pressure gauge reads 20 psi of pressure. When the valve is opened, the pressure gauge reads 13 psi of pressure. What is the Potential Pressure in this case
15. When the embalming solution is in the embalming machine and the rate of flow valve is closed, the pressure gauge reads 20 psi of pressure. When the valve is opened, the pressure gauge reads 13 psi of pressure. What is the Actual Pressure in this case
16. When the embalming solution is in the embalming machine and the rate of flow valve is closed, the pressure gauge reads 20 psi of pressure. When the valve is opened, the pressure gauge reads 13 psi of pressure. What is the Differential Pressure in this case
17. The term which describes the amount of embalming solution injected in a given period, or the speed at which the solution enters the body
Rate of Flow
18. What is the center of arterial distribution
The ascending aorta and aortic arch
19. List the signs of arterial solution distribution
Fluid dye; Distension of superficial blood vessels; Blood drainage; Leakage from intravenous punctures ;Clearing of intravenous blood discolorations
20. List the signs of arterial solution diffusion
Dye in the tissues; Firming of the tissues; Clearing of intravascular blood discolorations; Loss of skin elasticity (beginning firming);Drying of the tissues; Rounding of fingertips, lips, and toes; Mottling of the tissues (bleaching); Fluorescent dye observed using black light;
21. According to the author of the textbook, what is very important to do during the injection of the first gallon of arterial solution to establish good distribution
Firm massage and exercise of the extremities
22. List procedures which could be tried in order to improve distribution
Increase rate of flow; Increase pressure; Inject using pulsation; Restrict drainage; Massage; Inject adequate volume; Relieve extreme abdominal extravascular pressure with trocar; Use another drainage site;
23. List the 7 types of movement solution experience while moving from the capillaries to the cell body
Diffusion; Osmosis; Pressure Filtration; Ultra Filtration; Gravitational Filtration; Dialysis; Absorption;
24. The term which describes the spreading or scattering of embalming solution -
25. List the terms which describe movement of solution from the capillaries to the interstitial space
The Passive (or Physical - as opposed to chemical) transport processes of Pressure Filtration, Ultra Filtration, Osmosis, and Dialysis
26. The term which describes the passage of solvent from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
27. The terms which describes the process of using pressure to force solution through the pores in the membrane, this is done usually from the capillaries to the interstitial space
Pressure Filtration
28. The term which describes the extreme form of the pressure filtration, where the embalmer uses a high pressure to destroy the membranes of the cells
Ultra Filtration
29. The term which describes the use of gravity to help settle the embalming solution to dependent parts of the body
Gravitational Filtration
30. Why do embalmers place cavity fluid high in the body cavity
To allow it to slowly settle to the dependent parts as the solution moves through the interstitial space
31. The term which describes the process of separating solutes by using a semi-permeable membrane
32. What is the purpose of dialysis in the movement of embalming solution from the interstitial space to the cellular spaces
To enable some of the solutes to enter cells, while keeping other solutes, like humectants, in the interstitial space
33. What are the two types of solutes in embalming fluid
Large Colloids, and Small Crystalloids
34. The term which describes the small solutes that can pass through a semi-permeable membrane
35. List the types of solutes which are crystalloidal
Preservatives, salts, and germicides, dyes
36. The term which describes large solutes that can not pass through semi-permeable membranes without the process of ultra filtration
37. List the types of solutes which are colloidal
Humectants, (also enzymes and proteins)
1. According to the text, what are the aspiration procedure and subsequent perfusion with cavity fluid designed to do
Reach the substances and microbes found in the spaces within the thoracic, abdominopelvic, and sometimes cranial cavities; hollow viscera & their contents and organs that may not have been reached by arterial injection... It creates an unfavorable environment in the internal organs and destroys the media on which these microbes can grow and multiply
2. In relation to arterial embalming, when does cavity embalming occur
Following arterial embalming
3. List two occasions when cavity treatment is not employed
1. Donation to medical school 2. Embalming prior to autopsy.
4. List the solid organs that are treated by cavity embalming
Pancreas, spleen, kidney, brain, liver & lungs
5. Describe the type of purge that originates in the stomach.
Liquids, semi-solids, dark brown "coffee ground" appearance; odor; acid pH
6. Purge that is frothy with possible red blood and very little odor would emanate from which source
Would come out the nose or mouth from the lungs
7. List several conditions under which reaspiration would be strongly advised
A noticeable amount of gas when the trocar button is removed; ship-outs; ship-ins; decomposition; recent abdominal surgery; corpulence; evidence of gas, e.g. distention of neck or backs of hands; death involving infections of blood or abdominal cavity; drowning; ascites; distention of facial tissues from edema or gas
8. An instrument installed on a water line that uses water to create a vacuum for cavity aspiration is
9. What items are required to accomplish the process of aspiration
A pointed trocar, tubing, a device to create a suction or vacuum (such as a Hydroaspirator)
10. What are the two commonly-used types of instruments used to create a vacuum
Hydroaspirator and electric aspirator
11. A long hollow needle (metal tube) with a removable sharp point that is used to pierce the wall of the abdomen and internal organs for the purpose of removing the contents of the organs and fluid that has pooled in the cavities
12. Why is a complete disinfection/sterilization of the trocar important
To prevent the transfer of microorganisms (such as Clostridium perfringens) from one body to another
13. Besides the trocar, name two other types of aspiration instruments
Nasal tube aspirator and autopsy aspirator
14. List the main organs of the thoracic cavity
Heart and lungs
15. List the main organs of the abdominal cavity
Stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, spleen and kidneys
16. This is the largest glandular organ in the human body
The liver
17. List and number the areas of the abdomen using the 9-Region method (R to L and top to bottom)
Right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right inguinal, hypogastric, and left inguinal
18. Describe the dividing lines of the Four Region Plan
A horizontal line drawn from left to right through the umbilicus, and a vertical line drawn down the midline of the body
19. Using the four main trocar guides, which organ will you pierce if you move the trocar along a line from the left anterior-superior iliac spine and the right earlobe and depressing the point after you have passed through the diaphragm
Right side of heart
20. Using the four main trocar guides, which organ will you pierce if you direct your trocar along the abdomianl wall to the symphysis pubis, pull it back slightly and depress it while moving it forward
Urinary bladder
21. As a rule, cavity treatment follows arterial embalming. What is one exception to this rule
When the abdomen is tightly distended with gas or edema
22. What are the two periods during which cavity aspiration and injection can take place
Immediately following arterial injection and several hours following arterial injection
23. According to the text, why is it wise to suture incisions after aspiration
Because, aspiration takes the pressure off the vascular system and thus decreases the chances of leakage from the incision should some small vessels leak
24. List some advantages of aspirating shortly after arterial injection
Large numbers of microbes are quickly removed; translocation of microbes is less likely; risk of gas and purge from microbes is minimized or prevented; removes materials that could purge; eliminates bacterial medium from hollow viscera; removal of blood helps prevent blood discolorations (most importantly); decreases swelling where neck or facial tissues have distended during arterial injection
25. According to the text and the lesson, what is the theory behind having a long delay prior to aspirating
Delay of aspiration maintains the pressure within the vascular system and allows a more thorough distribution of the arterial solution into the tissues
26. Describe the standard point of trocar entry
Two inches to the left of and two inches superior to the umbilicus
27. Why isn't the trocar inserted on the right side of the abdomen near the umbilicus
Because the trocar would become entangled in the solid tissue of the liver
28. According to the text, what is the suggested order of cavity treatment
Thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, then pelvic cavity
29. Why is clear tubing helpful in the aspiration procedure
It permits visual examination of the material being removed and aids in determining which organ or space is being aspirated
30. As a general rule, the text suggests keeping the trocar in constant motion. What is the exception
When an area is filled with liquid (such as bodies with ascites, hydrothorax, or ruptured vessels such as the aorta), the trocar should sit until the area is thoroughly drained
31. According to the lesson, aspiration also creates more "surface area" within the thorax and abdomen. What is the significance of this
It increases the amount of tissue upon which the cavity fluid can act.
32. This is the bony plate/bone through which the trocar is pushed to aspirate the cranial cavity
The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
33. Describe how a gravity injector is used
The gravity injector is attached directly to the 16-ounce bottle of cavity fluid. A hose connects the injector to the trocar. The higher the bottle is raised, the faster the fluid flows into the body. A small opening on the side of the gravity injector allows air to flow into the cavity fluid bottle. By placing a finger over the opening, the embalmer stops the flow of cavity fluid. This can be done when the trocar must be withdrawn to change its position within a body cavity.
1. List several post-embalming treatments that are generally carried out after arterial and cavity embalming
Surface Embalming; Hypodermic Embalming; Closure of Incisions; Removal of Invasive Devices; Surface Embalming; Hypodermic Embalming; Closure of Incisions; Removal of Invasive Devices; Final Washing & Drying of the Body; Treatment of Ulcerations, Lesions & Discolorations; Treatment of Purge; Treatment of distension/swelling in visible areas; Inspection of mouth for purge/moisture & resetting features; Plastic Garments;
2. What are the two types of supplemental methods of embalming
Surface Embalming Hypodermic Embalming
3. What types of chemicals are used for surface embalming
Liquids, gels, and powders
4. When applying surface preservative gels, what should be done to reduce fumes and prevent evaporation
treatment should be covered with plastic
5. List two different ways embalming powders can be used and compare their effectiveness in relation to gels and liquids
Powders can be placed in plastic garments, they can also be used to treat the interior walls of the abdomen and thorax in the autopsied body, though they are not as effective as gels or liquids for this purpose.
6. What are the two common methods of incision closure today
sutures and super adhesives
7. List several steps that the text suggests must be taken before incisions are closed
cavity aspiration; vessels tied; force edema from surrounding tissue; dry incision; make a "pocket" for the sealing powder
8. Why should one pull on the thread and not the needle when tightening the suture
pulling on the needle weakens the thread
What is the suggested suture direction for the incision of the Common carotid artery (anterior parallel incision)
from inferior to superior
What is the suggested suture direction for the incision of the Common carotid artery (supraclavicular incision)
from medial to lateral
What is the suggested suture direction for the incision of the Axillary artery
from medial to lateral
What is the suggested suture direction for the incision of the Radial and ulnar incisions
from distal to medial (proximal)
10. What will need to be done to a body that has purged after dressing/cosmetics
The body should be reaspirated and the cavities re-injected with cavity fluid. The mouth and nasal cavities should be checked for dryness and tightly packed
11. List several different types of sutures
Individual (Bridge) Sutures; Baseball Suture; Single Intradermal (Hidden) Suture; Double Intradermal Suture; Inversion (Worm) Suture; Interlocking Suture; Continuous Suture ("Whip Stitch")
12. What is the most common type of suture
Baseball Suture
13. Which suture is normally used by autopsy technicians to close long incisions
Continuous Suture ("Whip Stitch")
14. How is the Single Intradermal suture "hidden"
It is directed through the subcutaneous tissue only
15. Why does the text suggest that invasive devices such as IV needles or venous catheters be left in place until after arterial injection
To reduce the risk of swelling and discoloration of the area from which the device is removed
16. Using the text and the lesson, explain how and why a pacemaker must be removed before cremation
A small incision is made over the device and the leads to the heart are cut. Due to radioactive material, a pacemaker can cause a minor explosion in the cremation chamber if incinerated.
17. According to the lesson, when should a colostomy bag be removed and what type of suture should be used to close the opening
a colostomy bag should be removed after arterial injection and an "N" or purse-string suture can be used to close the opening.
18. According to the LESSON, when should orifices such as the nasal passages, throat and rectum be packed
after embalming and cavity treatment is completed as cavity treatment can alleviate any pressure which may be causing the purge in the first place
19. List several different ways that pitting edema can be moved out of an area
gravitation, massage, channeling, application of pressure
20. What problem can arise in removing edema from the facial tissues or hands
very wrinkled skin
21. Define Crepitation
the spongy feel of gas as it moves through tissues when they are pushed on
22. Define Stoma
The exposed portion of the bowel
23. List some ways that wrinkled lips can be corrected
gluing, waxing, tissue building
24. What is a Capri garment
a single unit plastic garment that combines pants and stockings
25. Describe a Unionall
a plastic garment that covers the arms, trunk, and legs
26. Describe the recommended care of the embalming machine after each use
it should be flushed with warm water, and possibly a solvent or cleaning solution followed by warm water. It should not be left dry
27. List some possible post-embalming problems that may need addressed
Cosmetic Corrections; Separated Tissues; Leakage; Purge;
28. List some potential areas of leakage cited by the text AND the lesson
Undetected point where trocar broke through; Cranial autopsy suture/staples; IV sites; Incisions/Autopsy sutures; Skin slip or edema; Trauma to face or hands; Surgical sutures; Edematous areas; Broken skin;
1. List four age categories that influence embalming technique
Infant to Young Child (Birth to age 4); Child to Young Adult (Age 4-12); Young Adult to Adult (Age 12 to Mid-70's); Old Age (Mid-70's to 90's);
2. List some factors other than age that will influence embalming technique
Size & Weight, Moisture, Postmortem changes, Discolorations
3. List four injection sites for the unautopsied infant
Common carotid artery, external iliac or femoral artery, abdominal aorta, ascending aorta
4. What legal ramifications should one consider with respect to use of the abdominal or ascending aorta
The family may have refused an autopsy and think that the hospital did one anyway because the incisions are so similar.
5. In this type of autopsy, only one cavity is opened (cranial, thoracic, abdominal or spine)
6. Define Senile Purpura
An extravascular irregularly shaped blood discoloration that often appears on the arms and backs of the hands
7. List several treatments that can be used on areas of an autopsied infant not reached by arterial injection
Hypodermic injection, Internal compresses, Preservative gels, External compresses
8. List some causes of death in the 4-12 year old age group -
Infectious/Contagious Disease: Meningitis or pneumonia; Childhood viral diseases; Systemic diseases: leukemia or cystic fibrosis
9. With regard to children, what should be done to ensure good cosmetic treatment
Facial hair should be removed to facilitate good cosmetic application
10. With regard to pressure & rate of flow, which does the text (and instructor) feel is of greater concern
Rate of flow is of much greater concern than pressure
11. List some examples of supplemental embalming fluids -
Preinjection fluids, coinjection fluids, humectants, dyes, and water conditioners
12. What condition is common in the lower extremities of diabetes cases
In cases of diabetes, gangrene is common in the lower extremities
13. Describe preinjection fluid and why it is used
A chemical containing very little or no preservative, used for preparing the vascular system and body tissues for the injection of the preservative solution, to clear intravascular blood discolorations, remove blood in the vascular system, and adjust the pH of the tissues.
14. According to the text, what is the average life expectancy for men and women
72.6 years for men, 77.6 years for women
15. This term describes the use of coinjection chemicals as a substitute for water
Waterless solution
16. What is the biggest problem with mouth closure in an elderly case
The maxilla can atrophy and be soft or "mushy" making it very difficult to attach a needle injector barb
17. What is the best primary injection point for a cardiac patient
The common carotid artery (and the internal jugular vein for drainage)
18. Which vessel commonly used for injection most frequently exhibits sclerosis
The femoral artery
19. What would an extensive incision down the inner leg indicate
The Greater Saphenous Vein has been taken for transplant in a coronary bypass operation
20. This disease may be defined as both an acute and a chronic metabolic disorder characterized principally by hyperglycemia (an excess of sugar in the blood) resulting from a deficiency of insulin
Diabetes Mellitus
1. What is an autopsy
A postmortem examination of the dead human body
2. What are the two types of autopsies
Medical (Hospital) Autopsy, and Medicolegal (Forensic) Autopsy
3. List several reasons why a hospital would perform/require an autopsy
No firm diagnosis;
Unexpected medical complications;
Following diagnostic procedure not under jurisdiction of M.E. or coroner;
Sudden, unexpected, or mysterious circumstances and not under jurisdiction of M.E. or coroner;
Suspected environmental or workplace hazards; Possible contagious disease;
Insurance settlements;
Quality of nursing home care in question
4. What are the goals of a coroner/Medical Examiner autopsy
Discovering the cause of death and the manner of death
5. What is the Sella Turcica
A saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull. The internal carotid arteries are found on the lateral edges of this depression.
6. Is it necessary to insert drainages devices when embalming an autopsied body
No drainage instruments are necessary
7. List some typical cases that would be reported to a coroner or medical examiner
Violence or trauma
Fetal, stillborn, baby within 24 hours of birth (mother not under physician care)
8. List several cases on which an autopsy must be performed
Homicide; Workplace; Motor vehicle driver; Pedestrians; Passengers lacking clear evidence of trauma; Intra- and perioperative accidental; Epileptics; Possible S.I.D.S; Infants or children with evidence of bodily injury; Inmates of correctional facilities, nursing homes, or medical institutions; Trauma; Nontraumatic, sudden, unexpected; Anorexia nervosa; Multiples of coincidental, unexplained death at one location; Possible poisoning or overdose; Bona fide discretion of pathologist
9. Generally speaking, with regard to fluid selection, what type of solution should be used on an autopsied case
Somewhat stronger than average
10. Regarding an autopsied body, what factors influence the need for a stronger arterial solution
Delayed preparation, refrigeration, pathologic conditions
11. Because refrigeration can cause hemolysis and hardening of tissue, what is the best way to detect actual arterial solution distribution
Use dye in the arterial solution
12. Describe a partial autopsy
Generally, only one body cavity is opened to examine one specific item - usually medical
13. The text lists two reasons why it is important to support the scalp while the head is being injected. What are they
To prevent a crease from forming in the middle of the forehead and to assist distribution of fluid through the scalp.
14. In an autopsied case, what are the ideal vessels to use for injection of the lower extremities
Right and left common iliac
15. In an autopsied case, what are the ideal vessels to use for injection of the upper extremities
Right and left subclavian arteries
16. List some ways to secure the calvarium and prevent it from moving
Suture; through temporalis muscles and up across calvarium; Separately suture cut temporalis muscles on either side; Calvarium clamps; Drill calvarium and temporal bone, wire together; Superglue; Plaster of Paris; Needle injector wire
17. What distribution problems does one encounter if it becomes necessary to inject the axillary artery rather than the subclavian artery of an autopsied body
The shoulder, upper portions of the back, and deep muscles of the neck will not receive distribution
18. List the main steps in the suggested order of preparation of an autopsied body
1 Unwrap and disinfect; 2 Shave and set features; 3 Open cavities; 4 Locate and ligate vessels; 5 Prepare arterial solution; 6 Inject; 7 Supplemental treatments; 8 Drain and treat cavities and internal surfaces; 9 Prepare abdominal and thoracic cavities and neck area; 10 Suture thoracic and abdominal cavities; 11 Dry cranial cavity; 12 Suture scalp; 13 Wash and dry body; 14 Apply sealing agent to incisions; 15 Dress in coveralls with powder to surface of abdominal and back areas; 16 Prepare embalming report
19. List three reasons why it is important to inject the left side of the head first
Because a certain amount of fluid will flow to the right side via anastomosis, to see the effects of the fluid/dye on the left side, and to prevent over injection of the right side of the face
20. What is the Circle of Willis
An arterial circle at the base of the brain - receives all the blood that is pumped up the two internal carotid arteries that come up the front of the neck and that is pumped from the basilar artery formed by the union of the two vertebral arteries that come up the back of the neck
21. Define Anastomosis
The connection of normally separate parts or spaces so they intercommunicate
22. After the completion of arterial embalming, what areas should be supplementally injected with a hypo-valve trocar
Buttocks, Breasts, Shoulder & neck regions, All "flaps" surrounding the "Y" incision; left & right and the triangular flap below the neck
23. How much cavity fluid does the text suggest should be used to treat the viscera
At least two bottles
24. When embalming a thoracic autopsy, where is drainage taken for the lower extremities and abdomen
Inferior vena cava
25. What are the three types of partial autopsies
Cranial, Thoracic, and Abdominal
1. What are the four types of tissue in the body
Epithelium, connective (bone blood cartilage), muscle, and nerve
2. This is defined as any part of the body exercising a specific function
An organ
3. Describe the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act
The act allows any person 18 years or older to donate all organs and tissues of their body for transplantation, research or educational purposes after their death
4. What is the priority of the next-of-kin who can consent to organ donation
From highest to lowest: Spouse, Adult Son or Daughter, Either Parent, Adult Sibling, Guardian, Any other person authorized or under obligation to dispose of the body
5. Define the term proximal humerus as used by tissue banks
Indicates that only the humeral head and upper portion of the humerus are recovered
6. What organs are currently being recovered for transplantation
heart; lungs; heart/lungs en bloc (as a unit; all together); liver; kidneys; pancreas; small bowel; skin
7. List and describe the two options for the arterial injection of an organ donor
External Access, where embalming is accomplished by raising vessels at one of the commonly used injection and drainage sites; Internal Access, where the embalmer opens the procurement incision(s) and attempts to inject the body utilizing the arterial structures that remain intact in the area(s) where organ recovery has taken place
8. What are the recommended procedures to control swelling of the eyelids when embalming an eye enucleation case
Use restricted cervical injection to control arterial solution entering the head; Avoid preinjection procedures; Do Not use weak arterial solutions - use slightly stronger than average; Avoid excessive manipulation of the eyelids prior to and during embalming; Let embalming solution drain from the eye during arterial injection; Avoid rapid rates of flow and high injection pressure during arterial injection
9. What will be used as a prosthetic device by many tissue banks after long bones or spinal sections have been removed
PVC piping
10. Give a brief description of the Free Flow method of preparing a long bone donor
Leave procurement sutures in place; inject external iliac arteries with a very strong solution. Stop after at least one-half gallon of solution has been injected into each leg and let the fluid saturate into the tissues while the arms, head & trunk are embalmed
11. This is an instrument used to peel or shave very thin layers of skin
12. What are the two major problems embalmers encounter when dealing with a skin donor case
Drying of the affected areas (where skin has been removed) and control of seepage or leakage
13. What are two methods of treating areas where skin has been taken
1) Paint the affected areas with a cauterant, or apply surface compress(es) saturated with cauterant, or both after arterial injection. Products which have a phenol base or undiluted cavity fluid can be used. Allow time for products to work, and surfaces to dry. 2) If skin has been removed from posterior portions, elevate the body off the table using body bridges. After cleaning and disinfection, allow to air dry (fan/hair dryer may be used) to seal affected areas and preserve tissues (may take several hours). When dry, tissues will feel firm, with dark brown or yellow-brown appearance.