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takes place when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage.


To ______ something from your mental data bank, you search your store of memory to find the relevant information.

Serial Position Effect

is the tendency to recall the items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle.

Serial Position Effect

you might notice that you always seem to remember the first person to get voted off and the last few survivors. All those people in the middle, however, are a blur. Example of?

primacy effect

refers to better recall for items at the beginning of a list.

recency effect

refers to better recall for items at the end of the list.

serial position effect

Together with the relatively low recall of items from the middle of the list, this pattern makes up the......

serial position effect

When a person is asked to memorize a list of words, the words memorized last usually are recalled best, those at the beginning next best, and those in the middle least efficiently. EXAMPLE OF?

they are rehearsed more or because they receive more elaborative processing

With respect to the primacy effect, the first few items in the list are easily remembered because ........... or.........than do words later in the list

rehearsal time; rehearsal

Working memory is relatively empty when the items enter during primacy effect,, so there is little competition for _____ Moreover, because the items get more _____, they stay in working memory longer and are more likely to be encoded successfully into long-term memory.


In primary effect, many items from the middle of the list drop out of working memory before being______ into long-term memory.

working memory

For the recency effect,when items are recalled, they might still be in _____.


For the recency effect, even if these items are not in working memory, the fact that they were just encountered makes them easier to______


If effective cues for what you are trying to remember do not seem to be available, you need to ______them—a process that takes place in working memory

Retrieval Cues

if you have a block about remembering a new friend's name, you might go through the alphabet, generating names that begin with each letter. If you manage to stumble across the right name, you will probably recognize it. EXAMPLE OF?

retrieval task

Although cues help, your success in retrieving information also depends on the _____ you set for yourself.

memory distinction

The presence or absence of good cues and the retrieval task required are factors in an important ________


is a memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned information, as on essay tests.


is a memory task in which the individual only has to identify (recognize) learned items, as on multiple-choice tests.

retrieval cues

Recall tests such as essay tests have poor.....


In recognition tests such as multiple-choice tests, you merely judge whether a stimulus is______

encoding specificity principle

states that information present at the time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a retrieval cue

encoding specificity principle

you know your instructors when they are in the classroom setting—you see them there all the time. If, however, you run into one of them in an unexpected setting and in more casual attire, such as at the gym in workout clothes, the person's name might escape you. EXAMPLE OF?

context-dependent memory

In many instances, people remember better when they attempt to recall information in the same context in which they learned it—a process referred to as....

context-dependent memory

This better recollection is believed to occur because they have encoded features of the context in which they learned the information along with the actual information. WHICH PROCESS?

Autobiographical memory

a special form of episodic memory, is a person's recollections of his or her life experiences

reminiscence bump

An intriguing discovery about autobiographical memory is the_____the effect that adults remember more events from the second and third decades of life than from other decades

Autobiographical memories

are complex and seem to contain unending strings of stories and snapshots, but researchers have found that they can be categorized

life time periods; general events; event-specific knowledge

For example, based on their research, Martin Conway and David Rubin (1993) sketched a structure of autobiographical memory that has three levels, WHICH ARE?

life time periods

structure of autobiographical memory:The most abstract level

life time periods

structure of autobiographical memory:you might remember something about your life in high school. example of?

general events

structure of autobiographical memory: The middle level in the hierarchy is made up of?

general events

structure of autobiographical memory: such as a trip you took with your friends after you graduated from high school. EXAMPLE OF?

event-specific knowledge

structure of autobiographical memory: the most concrete level in the hierarchy is composed of?

event-specific knowledge

structure of autobiographical memory: from your postgraduation trip, you might remember the exhilarating experience you had the first time you jet-skied. EXAMPLE OF?

autobiographical memory; life time periods; general events; event-specific knowledge

When people tell their life stories, all three levels of WHAT are usually present and intertwined?

autobiographical memories

They provide a reconstructed, embellished telling of the past that connects the past to the present and include some reality and some myth.

Dan McAdams

argues that autobiographical memories are less about facts and more about meanings

Flashbulb memory

is the memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events

Flashbulb memory

Perhaps you can remember where you were when you first heard of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. EXAMPLE OF?

Flashbulb memory

An intriguing dimension WHICH TYPE OF MEMORY is that several decades later, people often remember where they were and what was going on in their lives at the time of such an emotionally charged event.

Flashbulb memory

These memories seem to be part of an adaptive system that fixes in memory the details that accompany important events so that they can be interpreted at a later time.

William James

The American psychologist and philosopher who said that an experience can be so emotionally arousing that it almost leaves a scar on the brain. Personal traumas are candidates for such emotionally stirring experiences.


is a defense mechanism by which a person is so traumatized by an event that he or she forgets it and then forgets the act of forgetting.


According to psychodynamic theory, ________ main function is to protect the individual from threatening information.

motivated forgetting

If it does exist, repression can be considered a special case of.....

motivated forgetting

occurs when individuals forget something because it is so painful or anxiety-laden that remembering is intolerable

motivated forgetting

This type of forgetting may be a consequence of the emotional trauma experienced by victims of rape or physical abuse, war veterans, and survivors of earthquakes, plane crashes, and other terrifying events.

motivated forgetting

Even when people have not experienced trauma, they may use ______ to protect themselves from memories of painful, stressful, or otherwise unpleasant circumstances.

Memory retrieval

occurs when information that has been retained in long-term memory is taken out of storage.

serial position effect

is the tendency to remember information that falls at the beginning and the end of a list more easily than information in the middle.

primacy effect

is the term to describe the better recall for information at the beginning of a list.

recency effect

is what is used to the better recall we have for information at the end of a list.

the nature of the cues and the retrieval task

There are two other factors involved in remembering information.........


is a memory task that is used when a person needs to retrieve previously learned information from storage.


This type of memory is used often on essay exams.


is a memory task employed when a person needs to identify certain items that have been presented as familiar.


This type of memory is used often on multiple choice exams.

principle of encoding specificity

states that the information available at the time of encoding tends to be effective in helping to remember that information.

context-dependent memory

When people remember information better in the same context in which they stored it, this is the phenomenon called........

state-dependent memory

When people remember information better when they are in the same psychological state or mood as when the information was stored, this is known as........

relevance; emotional or traumatic; apparent accuracy

Some memories have special significance because of their _______to the self, because of their ________ character, or because they have unusually high levels of _______.

Autobiographical memories

are a form of episodic memory that comes into play when a person remembers his or her life experiences.

life's time periods.

On the most abstract level of autobiographical memories are memories of.......

general events.

The middle level of autobiographical memories consists of .........

event-specific knowledge

The most concrete level of autobiographical memories consists of ............

present and intertwined.

When people tell their life stories, all three of these levels of autobiographical memories are usually ________ and _________

truth and myth

Most autobiographical memories are comprised of a mixture of ____ and _____

Flashbulb memories

are memories of emotionally significant events that a person may recall with much more accuracy than memories of everyday events.

flashbulb memories

Most_________are of a personal nature rather than being some public event.

flashbulb memory

Most people feel they are completely accurate in remembering the exact events that occurred in a_________, but they are probably not as accurate as they think; however, such memories are still more accurate than everyday ones.


In addition to rehearsal following a flashbulb event, the _________arousal triggered by the event contributes to the vividness and durability of the memory.

traumatic events

Research has shown that memories of ______ are vivid and detailed, and more accurate and long-lasting than memories of everyday events.


Although memory of _____is subject to deterioration and distortion, this is usually in the details, while the central part of the memory is almost always effectively recalled.

Repressed memories

are forgotten memories of a very traumatizing event.

Repressed memories

First the memories are forgotten, then the person forgets the act of forgetting them. PROCESS OF?

motivated forgetting

Repression is a special form of .........

motivated forgetting,

With_________ the memory is so painful that remembering it is not tolerable.

Eyewitness testimony

occurs when people are asked to report exactly what they saw or heard as it relates to a crime.

eyewitness testimony.

An estimated two thousand to ten thousand people are wrongly accused and convicted each year because of inaccurate..........

faulty memory

The factors involved in__________ are distortion (because memory fades), bias, and inaccuracy.

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