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Hermann Ebbinghaus

was the first person to conduct scientific research on forgetting.

Hermann Ebbinghaus

was the first person to conduct scientific research on forgetting.

Hermann Ebbinghaus

concluded that most forgetting takes place soon after we learn something.

Encoding failure

occurs when the information was never entered into long-term memory.

Retrieval Failure

Psychologists have theorized that the causes of _____ include problems with the information in storage, the effects of time, personal reasons for remembering or forgetting, and the brain's condition

interference theory,

people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember.

proactive and retroactive

The two kinds of interference:

Proactive interference

occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later

Proactive interference

suppose you had a good friend 10 years ago named Prudence and that last night you met someone named Patience. You might find yourself calling your new friend Prudence because the old information (Prudence) interferes with retrieval of new information (Patience). EXAMPLE OF?

Retroactive interference

occurs when material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier

Retroactive interference

Suppose you have lately become friends with Ralph. In sending a note to your old friend Raul, you might mistakenly address it to Ralph because the new information (Ralph) interferes with the old information

"forward in time."

pro- means.......

"backward in time."

retro- means.......

retrieval cues.

Proactive and retroactive interference might both be explained as problems with ........

decay theory

when we learn something new, a neurochemical memory trace forms, but over time this trace disintegrates.

decay theory

suggests that the passage of time always increases forgetting.

tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon

a type of "effortful retrieval" that occurs when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memorY

tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon

we usually can successfully retrieve characteristics of the word, such as the first letter and the number of syllables, but not the word itself EXAMPLE OF?

tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon

arises when we can retrieve some of the desired information but not all of it

tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon

it demonstrates that we do not store all of the information about a particular topic or experience in one way.

tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon

. If you have ever struggled to think of a specific word, you probably came up with various words that mean the same thing as the word you were looking for, but you still had a nagging feeling that none was quite right. EXAMPLE OF?

Prospective memory

involves remembering information about doing something in the future; it includes memory for intentions

Prospective memory

includes both timing—when we have to do something—and content—what we have to do.


Kind of prospective memory is our intention to engage in a given behavior after a specified amount of time has gone by.

Time-based prospective memory

an intention to make a phone call to someone in one hour. EXAMPLE OF?


KIND OF prospective memory, we engage in the intended behavior when some external event or cue elicits it

event-based prospective memory

when we give a message to a roommate when we see her. EXAMPLE OF?

event-based; time-based

The cues available in_______ prospective memory make it more effective than _________ prospective memory


when we become preoccupied with something else, are distracted by something, or are under a lot of time pressure


often involves a breakdown between attention and memory storage


the loss of memory

anterograde amnesia

a memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events


WHAT indicates amnesia that moves forward in time

anterograde amnesia

H. M. could identify his friends, recall their names, and even tell stories about them—if he had known them before the surgery. People who met H. M. after the surgery remained strangers, even if they spent thousands of hours with him. H. M.'s postsurgical experiences were rarely encoded in his long-term memory. EXAMPLE OF?

retrograde amnesia

involves memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events


indicates amnesia that moves back in time

retrograde amnesia

frequently occurs when the brain is assaulted by an electrical shock or a physical blow such as a head injury to a football player.


in ______amnesia the forgotten information is old—it occurred prior to the event that caused the amnesia—and the ability to acquire new memories is not affected.

encoding failure

When information is never stored into long-term memory in the first place, there is a problem with....

various theories on retrieval failure

problems with the information in storage, the effects of time, personal reasons for remembering or forgeting, and the brain's condition. EXAMPLES OF?


occurs when other information gets in the way of the information a person is trying to remember.

proactive interference

When information that was learned at a previous time interrupts the learning of new information, this phenomenon is called .......

retroactive interference.

When the learning of new information disrupts the remembering of previous information, this condition is called......

Decay theory

states that neurochemical memory traces disintegrate over time. Thus this theory suggests that forgeting always increases with the passage of time.

"tip of the tongue" phenomenon, or TOT state

occurs when we can almost remember something and are confident we know it but cannot retrieve it.

"tip of the tongue" phenomenon, or TOT state

This phenomenon occurs when we retrieve some of the information but not all of it.

prospective memory

When a person is trying to remember to do something in the future, this is called ......

prospective memory

This is a memory for intentional types of information. It includes timing and content.

Time-based prospective memory

occurs when a person intends to do something after a specified amount of time has passed.

Event-based prospective memory ; Event-based prospective memory ; Time-based prospective memory

_____ Happens when a person intends to do something that is elicited by some external event or cue. These cues make _________more effective than _______

Anterograde amnesia

occurs when a person cannot remember new information. This disorder occurs forward from the time of the event causing the amnesia.

Retrograde amnesia

occurs when someone cannot remember past information but does not have a problem forming or retrieving newer memories.

Retrograde amnesia

When the memories lost are of things that occurred previous to the event causing the amnesia.

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