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CJUS 200 FINAL
Terms in this set (145)
It is acceptable for a researcher's own ethical beliefs to guide his or her research efforts if he or she has been a victim of crime.
Which statement summarizes how scholars perceive criminology and criminal justice?
scholars from both areas seem to appreciate the need to understand both areas
Which statement is true of a grand jury?
The purpose of the grand jury hearing is to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest that the case should proceed to trial.
The modern emergence of criminal justice can be traced to President
Individuals sentenced to a year or more of incarceration are sent to __________, while individuals sentenced to less than a year of incarceration are sent to __________.
Researchers who allow their values to influence the research endeavor are violating the principle of
Easy accessibility and representative age are reasons that college students
make good research subjects
What do justice studies; crime, law, and society; criminal justice; and criminology programs all have in common?
They all recognize the need to understand the criminal justice progress
Which individual would most likely be labeled a juvenile delinquent?
a 16-year-old who sells drugs in her high school
Which type of law is an example of strict liability?
Calling in sick for work when one isn't really sick is an example of a status offense.
In a classic experiment, which group is manipulated?
the experimental group
Which crime violates natural law?
Xavier got on the elevator on the ground floor and sang loudly until he reached the 45th floor. Xavier has violated a more.
All of the following individuals are criminal justice scientists except:
a juvenile delinquent
As a case proceeds through the justice process, the standards of proof for establishing the legal elements of criminality decrease.
Mala in se is to __________ as mala prohibita is to __________.
murder, public intoxication
What is one reason that the NIBRS has such a low agency participation rate?
it is detailed and cumbersome
According to UCR data, the South has the highest rates of both violent and property crime.
Research suggests that happiness is tied more to physical disorder than social disorder.
Which example best illustrates the parenting hypothesis?
Jim and Liz are siblings who grew up in an abusive home environment. Jim had several arrests for misdemeanors, while Liz developed an eating disorder and severe anxiety.
In order to explain crime, we first must know the
extent of crime
Nancy is interviewed every six months for three years and asked whether or not she has experienced specific types of victimization. Nancy is participating in the
national crime victimization survey
Tony hit his playmates at age 3, shoplifted at age 10, committed burglary at age 19, and was convicted of rape at age 24. Tony is an example of a(n) __________ offender.
The theory that southerners are socialized to accept and use violence in certain types of situations is best used to potentially explain the
higher rates of violence in the south
Trends over time show female arrests __________ between 2003 and 2013, while male arrests __________.
Among juveniles, research suggests that gang members have lower rates of delinquency than non-gang members.
Threat of force is enough to define a theft as a robbery.
Research on justifiable homicide found that police more frequently committed their justified homicides __________, while citizens more frequently committed justifiable homicides __________
responding to attacks; in response to burglaries and larcenies
Prostitution is legal in a few counties in Nevada as long as the services occur in a
Which statement is TRUE about serial killers?
Experts agree that there are no universal causes of these serial killer behaviors
The bulk of crimes that come to the attention of authorities are property crimes.
Which type of gang is short-lived and has very little focus and purpose?
the diffuse gang
Criminal sentences given to white-collar crime do not appear to be more lenient than those given to property offenders with similar criminal histories.
Why is robbery defined as a violent crime?
Force or threat of force is used
Which factor distinguishes a spree killing from a mass murder?
spree killings are spread over multiple locations
Which assumption do rational choice theorists make about behavior?
it is purposeful
According to self-control theory, level of self-control changes according to one's stages of development.
Hirschi asserts that individuals are bonded to society through all of the following elements EXCEPT
Which two factors do most conflict theories have in common?
Power imbalance and weakened lower class
Primary deviance and secondary deviance are components of neutralization theory.
Wilson and Kelling asserted that an unrepaired broken window signals that
According to Cohen, why do lower-class children have the cards stacked against them by the time they reach school?
they are judged by a set of standards they have never been taught
General deterrence focuses on preventing the individual from committing future offenses.
Gottfredson and Hirschi suggested that self-control levels come from
According to John Wright and his colleagues, an entire body of knowledge has been excluded from criminal justice and criminology. What is this body of knowledge?
Which system in England is associated with the phrase "it takes a thief to catch a thief?"
the parliamentary reward system
Tom is a police officer during the political era. Joe is a modern-day officer. Which task would Tom do that Joe would probably not?
running a soup kitchen
Inspector Alexander "Clubber" Williams is associated with which common practice of American policing?
The creation of the first modern police department in Boston looked almost identical to that in London.
Which term most accurately describes the role of police in the political machines of the late 1800s?
The majority of countries around the world have one national police force.
During the reform era, the emphasis of the police was on
While most countries around the world have a __________ government, America has a __________ form of government.
What was the name of the first modern police department in the world?
the London Metropolitan Police
Which police practice would have been common during the political era?
Zero tolerance policing is synonymous with broken windows theory.
Which dimension of community policing is often focused on geography?
Many police officers assigned to team policing were those who did not perform well on the street or were close to retirement
What was the significance of George Kelling's study?
It was the first empirical study that attempted to assess the question of police deterrence.
The Differential Police Response system is similar to
Zero tolerance policing draws upon which theory?
Which question was first addressed by the Police Foundation?
Do police officers driving around the neighborhood deter crime?
Which statement describes the RAND Corporation's findings on detective work?
Detective work was, in reality, superficial, routine, and nonproductive
One of the first empirical studies in policing that attempted to assess the question of police deterrence was commissioned by the Police Foundation.
The 911 system started in Norfolk, Virginia in the 1960s.
Which type of warrantless search is allowed because the individual waives Fourth Amendment rights?
Police officers do not necessarily share the same level of __________ danger, but they all share __________ danger.
real, the potential for
Which event or law is an issue of federalism?
the legalization of the sale of marijuana in Colorado
In order for the police to conduct a search, they must have reasonable suspicion that a crime has been committed.
The police subculture is an example of an external pressure on police.
The majority of cases that involve the police typically pertain to the __________Amendment.
Political, economic, social, and technological influences on the police are considered __________ issues.
The acronym PEST stands for police, economic, social, and technological.
Allegations of police misconduct are typically investigated by the department's internal affairs unit.
Warrantless searches are to __________ as stop and frisk is to __________.
probable cause, reasonable suspicion
Traditionally, court documents were submitted
It is important for the victim and the judge to have a strong relationship during the trial process.
A bailiff has all of the following responsibilities except:
announcing the verdict
A juror may be excused from a case for listening to media coverage of that particular case.
What is the purpose of a trial court administrator?
to facilitate smooth functioning of the courts
What is the primary reason that a victim is a key player in the courtroom workgroup?
the trial revolves around the victims story and evidence
In which two states must a person be 21 years old in order to serve on a jury?
Mississippi and Missouri
The geographic area where the trial occurs is called the
Court clerk is synonymous with court administrator.
In an appeal, the burden of proof changes from __________ to __________.
the prosecutor, the defense
All states use a grand jury in order to determine if the accused should be held for trial.
Which individual will not be called for grand jury?
Armand who lives in Reading Pennsylvania
According to the U.S. Constitution, all citizens have the right to bail.
What happens to defendants who are unable to pay for their bail?
they are placed in detention until the trial date
The Speedy Trial Act of 1974 applies only to cases in the federal system.
Allowing jurors to ask questions and requiring unanimous decisions are two reforms recommended by the American Bar Association for the purpose of
increasing efficiency of the grand jury system
All of the following factors affect the charging decision except the
victim's impact statement
Which individual is most likely be discriminated against under the bail system?
a poor white male
Polling the jury occurs only when a defendant is found not guilty.
The appointment process for judges is a reaction to the problem of an uninformed electorate.
The merit plan of selecting judges is also called the
the Missouri Plan
In an indeterminate sentencing system, the actual sentence depends on the seriousness of the crime.
Judges may be removed from office in all of the following ways except:
What is the concern with judge-made law?
judges are not necessarily held accountable by the people
A defense attorney who does not adequately represent her client could be guilty of
Misbehaving prosecutors are personally liable for their misconduct in the courtroom.
Why did early children's courts not protect the constitutional, due process rights of juveniles?
because the defendants were not found guilty
Long delays between the time of the offense and the trial do not typically impact the trial itself
What is the primary purpose of life tenure without salary diminution for judges?
to allow judges to make decisions without fear of repercussions
Most state facilities are on a permanent state of lockdown, whereby a prisoner can leave his cell only if accompanied by a corrections officer or other prison employee.
Which goal of punishment is based on the idea that an offender cannot commit crime as long as he or she is monitored, jailed, or imprisoned?
Which goal of the system is based on the idea of "just desserts?"
Which of the following is qualification to be a correctional officer in most states?
high school diploma
Correctional officers are specifically trained to use offensive or defensive physical contact against inmates.
Three strikes legislation is a form of indeterminate sentencing.
What is the underlying assumption of deterrence?
Individuals are rational human beings who weigh the costs and benefits of their actions.
Who first presented a system of crime and punishment based on the concept of a contractual society?
In the American colonies, whipping, maiming, and dunking were types of
Punishment exists to deter future crime.
Which task is most likely to be performed by a juvenile probation officer?
Violent offenders are rarely sentenced to day reporting centers as part of their initial sentence.
Research suggests that the type of strain that increases the likelihood of reoffending is
What is the underlying philosophy of juvenile court?
Prison architecture is designed to
The presentence report is designed to assist the judge in sentencing.
Officers' discretion in deciding which probation/parole violation to refer to court is called
A traditional supervision caseload for a probation/parole officer is roughly 20 offenders.
The workload and caseload models of probation and parole are essentially the same.
Which of the following is a reason that jails are not conducive for rehabilitation?
offenders are typically not in jail long enough for effective treatment
Joe was released from prison with HIV and a two-week supply of his medication. Joe's medicine is expensive; however, he has difficulty keeping a job because of his illness. Joe is considering stealing money to pay for the meds. Joe's situation illustrates how inmate health is important for
The death penalty is synonymous with
Female inmates often develop familial relationships with other prisoners as a coping mechanism.
All of the following dimensions can produce criminogenic sanctions EXCEPT
Which type of petition alleges that an inmate's incarceration is unlawful?
The more time that offenders have on their hands, the less likely they are to engage in dangerous or inappropriate activities.
It is well accepted in the research literature that many sex offenders were once victims themselves.
Which factor has the strongest impact on successful re-entry?
strength of family network
Why are mentally ill offenders more likely to be caught violating their conditions of release?
they are more closely supervised
Which of the following is a moral argument that supports the death penalty?
offenders who murder individuals deserve to die themselves
Which of the following statements is supported by the research on the war on drugs?
the number of drug arrests has increased dramatically
Voyeurism is an example of a type of sexual abuse perpetrated against older adults.
Which of the following is a common argument against the legalization of drugs?
drug use is tied to crime
The U.S. Patriot Act permitted the use of wiretaps without court orders for terrorism suspects.
How are older offenders usually protected in prison?
California was the first state to pass laws covering computer crimes.
What is the most serious form of computer crime?
Between 1993 and 2011, 70 to 80 percent of homicides were committed using
According to the FBI, premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents is
Terrorists who threaten harm in an effort to create terror are engaging in
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