SERVSAFE Questions

While everyone is at risk for food borne illnesses given the right circumstances, a few populations are more susceptible. Who of these is least likely to contract a food borne illness?
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live shellfish
*45° F is an acceptable temperature at which to receive live shellfish, such as oysters, mussels, clams, and scallops, but other temperature-controlled food such as poultry, cut melon, and sprouts should be received at 41° F or lower. However, while it is acceptable to receive live shellfish at a temperature of 45°F, it should be cooled to 41°F or lower within four hours.
electric hand dryer
*All hand washing stations must have, at minimum, hot and cold running water, a sign that directs staff members to wash their hands, a trash receptacle, soap, and a method for drying hands. In addition to an electric hand dryer, single-use paper towels are also an acceptable method for drying hands.
Which would not be a good practice when cooling food?placing hot food in refrigerator for quick cooling *Placing hot food in the refrigerator can cause a dangerous rise in temperature of the existing food in the refrigerator.You have been out on vacation for a few days from your job as a food service manager. Upon returning, you find a food in the walk-in refrigerator and are unsure of its safety. What should you do?Discard it *When unsure of a food's safety, the rule is "When in doubt, throw it out," regardless of others' opinions, the storage methods, or the condition of the packaging.Which of these is false regarding food service pest control measures?Licensed PCOs (Pest Control Operators) should be in charge of purchasing and applying pesticides in every food-service establishment.What should your facility do to slow the spread of norovirus?Clean up vomit immediately *Viruses like norovirus and hepatitis A cannot be prevented by minimal internal temperatures, so good personal hygiene, including reporting symptoms, illnesses, and cleaning up vomit, is imperative.The FDA is responsible for inspecting all foods except for which of the following?meat, poultry, and eggs *The FDA is responsible for inspecting formula, bottled water, and canned goods, but the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for inspecting meat, poultry, and eggs.What would be an inappropriate item to feature on a children's menu?salmon sushi *The FDA recommends that children's menus do not offer items that contain raw or undercooked meat, seafood, or eggs. Sushi typically contains raw seafood, so it would not be a good choice for a children's menu item.The power goes out in your restaurant. As a manager, what is the first action you should take?Write down the time *If there is a power outage at your restaurant, you should first make note of the time so you know when the event occurred and can plan accordingly. If you have a generator, getting that operational would be an appropriate next step. Checking and recording the temperature of food is appropriate, but does not need to be done immediately after the outage occurs. TCS foods do not need to be thrown away until they have been in the temperature danger zone for more than 4 hours.Which of the following is not a potential source of chemical contamination?toxins in fish *Toxins, such as histamine, occur when foods are time-temperature abused. This is biological contamination.Cross-contact refers to the passing of ____ to food or food contact surfaces.allergensWhat type of thermometer would be best to check the internal cooking temperature of a pork roast?bimetallic stemmed *Bimetallic stemmed thermometers are the best for monitoring food and internal cooking temperatures due to the dimple sensor in the stem.Cooling food should move from 135°F or higher to 70°F in ____ hour(s).two *Cooling foods should move through the temperature danger zone (TDZ) as quickly as possible to limit pathogen growth, and should move from their cooking or hot holding temperature to 70°F in 2 hours.What is the second sink in a three-compartment sink used for?rinsing *The correct setup and use of a three-compartment sink is: wash, rinse, sanitize, air dry.Robert is using a cutting board for the same task during his entire shift. How often should his board be washed and sanitized?every four hours *You should clean and sanitize equipment, utensils, and surfaces after 4 hours of constant use.Hot water used for sanitizing must be at least ____.171°FYou've been informed of a food recall. You should identify the item, remove it from inventory, label it , and ____.inform staff *Once the recalled item has been identified, remove it from inventory and label it "Do Not Use" and "Do Not Discard." You should inform staff of the recall and not to move the item.Which of the following is not something an employee (working with non-at-risk customers) would be restricted for?experiencing diarrhea from an infection *Employees with an uncovered wound, a persistent cough or sneeze, or a sore throat with fever would only be restricted, while employees experiencing diarrhea, vomiting, or jaundice from an infection would be excluded.Paul needs to check the temperature of reduced oxygen packaged (ROP) items. How should he do it?by placing a thermometer probe between two packages *The temperature of reduced-oxygen packages (ROP) and modified atmosphere packages (MAP), like vacuum-sealed items, should be checked by placing a thermometer probe between two packages; these packages should never be punctured.Which of the following requires handwashing before and after the task?touching raw meat, seafood, or poultry *Washing hands for 20 seconds is the easiest way for food handlers to keep foods and surfaces free of contaminants and should be done before work, after using the bathroom, and before and after handling raw, meat, seafood, or poultry, as well as after various other tasks.Evie is putting items into refrigerated (cooler) storage. Which of the following is the correct shelf order, top to bottom?fresh lettuce, raw pork chops, fresh ground beef, raw chicken breasts *Items in refrigerated storage have a specific shelf order to protect against cross-contamination. The order from top to bottom should be: RTE foods, seafood, whole cuts of beef and pork, ground meats and seafood, and all poultry.At the receiving step, what is the correct way to check the temperature of a container of sour cream?with a bimetallic stem probe inserted into an open container *A bimetallic stemmed thermometer is the best way to monitor foods. A container that can be opened and closed should be checked by inserting a clean and sanitized thermometer into the food.Emily is cooling two gallons of leftover chili. First, she must ____.divide the chili into smaller shallow stainless steel pans *Large amounts of hot food should be divided into smaller shallow pans to increase the surface area before placing them in an ice bath or using an ice paddle to make the cooling process faster. Stainless steel pulls heat away faster than plastic.What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for injected meat?155°F for 17 seconds *Minimum internal cooking temperatures reduce pathogens to safe levels, and certain foods require specific temperatures. All ground meats and seafood, injected meat, mechanically tenderized meat, ratites, and shell eggs being hot held need to cook to 155°F for 17 seconds.Never parcook for longer than ____.60 minutes *Par-cooking can help save time, but requires written approval from your local regulatory authority. Never par-cook for longer than 60 minutes, then cool immediately, label, and freeze or refrigerate.When using a dry cloth to wipe spills from the edges of plates, Erin must remember it ____.cannot be visibly dirty when in use *Dry and wet cloths are used in cleaning and sanitizing but must never be used interchangeably. Dry cloths used for wiping the edge of plates or spills from tables cannot be visibly dirty or contain food debris when in use.The cold foods being held without temperature control at a catered event can be held for up to ____ hours.six *Cold foods can be held without temperature control for up to 6 hours if they were prepared properly, have written procedures for use, and have written approval from your local regulatory authority.Which of the following is not a type of approved cleaner used in foodservice operations?chlorine *Cleaning can be done using non-corrosive detergents, delimers, degreasers, and abrasive cleaners that are safe to use. Chlorine is a type of chemical sanitizer.Which of the following cannot be re-served to customers?an untouched basket of bread rolls *Only unopened packaged foods in nice condition can be re-served to customers.Which of the following safety practices can prevent cross-contact?using separate oil to fry potatoes and fish *Using the same oil to fry fish and then potatoes can pass allergens from the fish to the potatoes, which could put someone with a fish allergy in danger of cross-contact.In which of these cases should a case of fresh turkey cutlets be rejected?the receiving temperature is 51°F *A case of fresh poultry, such as turkey cutlets, should have the correct color and consistency, no odor, and be 41°F or lower when received.In a cooler (refrigerated storage) with five shelves, on which shelf would you store ground fish?Fourth *Refrigerated storage shelf order helps prevent cross-contamination and should be in the following top to bottom order: ready-to-eat (RTE), seafood, whole cuts of beef and pork, ground meat and ground fish, poultry. So, the fourth shelf would be the proper place for ground order (top to bottom) and Temperatures1. ready to eat food 2. seafood: 145F 15 seconds 3. whole cuts of beef and pork: 145F 15 seconds 4. ground meat and ground fish: 155F 15 seconds 5. whole and ground poultry: 165F secondsDry storageFood items stored in a cabinet and do not require refrigeration or freezing. Temperature should be between 50-70°F If possible, keep relative humidity at 50-60%storing shellfish and eggskeep at air temp of 45 or lower. keep eggs in fridge. shellfish- store alive, in original containers and keep shellstock tags on record for 90 daysstoring dairy-41 F (5c) -Keep perishable refrigerated -keep tightly closed -store unopened canned, powdered, or UHT milk in a cool, dry placethawing-thaw food in the cooler at 41 or lower -Submerge food under running water at potable water 70 -thaw in microwave -thaw during cookingPrepping Eggs-Cook promptly after mixing or store at 41 ̊F (5 ̊C) or lower - handle pooled eggs carefully - use pasteurized eggs for foods that need little cooking or for high risk populations - quickly clean equipmentPrepping batters and breadingWhen prepping battered or breaded food: - Prep batter in small batches. - Store unused batter as quickly as possible. - Throw out unused batter or breading after a set amount of time. - Cook food thoroughly. - When deep frying: o Make sure the oil temperature recovers before loading each batch. o Do NOT overload fryer baskets. o Monitor oil and food temperatures and cooking timesMinimum internal temperature: 165 F (74 C) for 15 seconds1. Poultry—including whole or ground chicken, turkey, or duck 2. Stuffing made with fish, meat, or poultry 3. Stuffed meat, seafood, poultry, or pasta 4. Dishes that include previously cooked TCS ingredients (raw ingredients) should be cooked to their required minimum internal temperatureMinimum internal temperature: 155 F (68 C) for 17 seconds-Ground meat: beef, pork, and other meat -Injected meat: including brined ham and flavor-injected roasts -Mechanically tenderized meat -Ground meat from game animals commercially raised and inspected -Ratites: including ostrich and emu -Ground seafood: including chopped or minced seafood -Shell eggs that will be hot-held for serviceMinimum internal temperature: 145 F (63 C) for 15 seconds1. Seafood—including fish, shellfish, and crustaceans 2. Steaks/chops of pork, beef, veal, and lamb 3. Commercially raised game 4. Shell eggs that will be served immediatelyMinimum internal temperature: 145°F (63°C) hold for 4 minutesRoasts of pork, beef, veal, and lamb Alternate cooking times/temperatures o130°F (54°C) 112 minutes o131°F (55°C) 89 minutes o133°F (56°C) 56 minutes o135°F (57°C) 36 minutes o136°F (58°C) 28 minutes o138°F (59°C) 18 minutes o140°F (60°C) 12 minutes o142°F (61°C) 8 minutes o144°F (62°C) 5 minutesMinimum internal temperature: 135°F (57°C) for food from plants that will be hot held for service-Fruits -Vegetables -Grains (e.g., rice, pasta) -Legumes (e.g., beans, re fried beans)cooking TCS in microwave165°F (74°C) -Meat -Seafood -Poultry -Eggs All are TCS foodsIf partially cooking meat, seafood, poultry, or eggs or dishes containing these items:- NEVER cook the food longer than 60 minutes during initial cooking - Cool the food immediately after initial cooking - Freeze or refrigerate the food after cooling it. o If refrigerating, hold it at 41ºF (5ºC) or lower and store it away from ready-to-eat food. -Heat the food to at least 165 ̊F (74 ̊C) for 15 seconds before selling or serving it -Cool the food if it will not be served immediately or held for serviceMethods for cooling food: Before cooling food, start by reducing its size-Cut larger items into smaller pieces -Divide large containers of food into smaller containers or shallow pans -Cooling time has a direct relationship to density•weight•thickness•size; i.e.; the less dense (usually smaller) an item the faster it will coolFactors that affect coolingreduced size, thicker means cools slower; Stainless steel pans transfer heat away faster than plastic Size of the food: o Cut larger items into smaller pieces. o Divide large containers of food into smaller containers or shallow pansMethods for cooling food safely and quickly:place food in an ice-water bath, stir it with an ice paddle, place it in a blast chillerFood reheated for hot-holdingmust be reheated to an internal temp of 165 for 15 seconds within 2 hours, reheat commercially processed foods and packaged ready to eat food to an internal temp of at least 135Vending machines-Check product shelf life daily o Refrigerated food prepped on-site and not sold in seven days must be thrown out -Keep TCS food at the correct temperature -Dispense TCS food in its original container -Wash and wrap fresh fruit with edible peels before putting it in the machWhich of the following is not a situation that would require the use of pasteurized eggs?offering an omelet station *Pasteurized eggs should be used in dishes that require little to no cooking, like dressings, sauces, or mousse, and when you primarily serve high-risk populationsthe HACCP systemis used to control risks and hazards throughout the flow of foodHACCP Principles1. Hazard analysis 2. Determine critical control points 3. Establish critical limits 4. Establish monitoring procedures 5. Identify corrective actions 6. Verify that the system works 7. Establish procedures for documentationWhich of the following would not require a variance?a wood burning pizza oven *Some preparations require a variance issued by your local regulatory authority, such as smoking foods, packaging fresh juice for on-site sale, using additives, curing, custom processing/dressing large game, ROP and MOP foods, sprouting seeds/beans, or having a live shellfish display tank.Kris is reheating soup to be held on the hot buffet. The soup should be heated to ____ for ____ seconds within ____ hours of its removal from refrigerated storage to ensure food safety.165°F for 15 seconds within 2 hoursYour daily hot lunch buffet runs from 11:30 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. The temperature of foods being hot held should remain at 135°F to be safe, and the temperature should be checked at least every ____ hour(s).four *Buffet foods are at risk for time-temperature abuse and should be checked with the proper thermometer inserted into the food every four hours. It may also be checked every two hours to leave time for corrective action if needed.FATTOM stands forFood, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen, MoistureWhich of the following is not a guideline for additive use?Never store foods with additives beside TCS foods *Approved food or color additives may be used but only what's allowed by law, and they should never be used to modify a food's appearance. Never sell produce treated with sulfites before receiving, and never add sulfites to produce that will be eaten rawconducting a hazard analysisidentify and assess potential hazards in the food you servedetermine critical control points(CCPs)finding the points in the process where the identified can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levelsestablish critical limitsFor each CCP, establish the minimum or maximum limits that must be met to prevent or eliminate the hazard, or to reduce it to a safe level.establish monitoring proceduresOnce critical limits have been created, determine the best way for your operation to check themidentify corrective actionsidentify steps that must be taken when a critical limit is not metverify that the system worksdetermine if the plan is working as intended evaluate on a regular basis: monitoring charts records how the hazard analysis was preformed determine if the plan adequately prevents, reduces, or eliminates identified hazardsestablish procedures for record keeping and documentationMaintain your HACCP plan and keep all documentation created when developing it.A.L.E.R.TAssure Look Employees Reports ThreatE.coliEnterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Ground beef (raw and undercooked) •Contaminated product Most Common Symptoms •Diarrhea (becomes bloody) •Purchase produce from approved, reputable suppliers •*Kidney failure (in severe cases)Nontyphoidal Salmonellafarm animals to humans, meat poultry, egg, dairyShigella spp.found in the FECES of humans with the illness can occur when ppl eat/drink contaminated food/water flies can transfer food: TCS foods (salads, potato, macaroni, and chicken), produce prevent: cooking eggs to internal temp prevent cross- contamination btwn poultry and ready to eat food most Common Symptoms •Bloody Diarrhea •Severe Abdominal cramps •VomitingBotulinum toxinan acetylcholine antagonist; prevents release by terminal buttons Temperature abused vegetables like: -Baked potatoes -Sauteed/heat treated onions -Untreated garlic-and-oil mixturesHepatitis Ainflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food or water Exclude staff who have jaundice from the operiatonNorovirusa contagious gastrointestinal illness Exclude staff who have diarrhea and vomiting from the operationAnisakiasisocean fish, bottom feeders, crabs lobsters, floundersCryptosporidiosisa diarrheal disease caused by the protist Cryptosporidium parvum , which is spread by contact with fecally contaminated waterGiardiasisspread by contact with fecally contaminated waterHistamine (scombroid poisoning)Spoiled dark-meat fish such as tuna, mahi- mahi, mackerel, and bonito. Bacterial histidine decarboxylase converts histidine to histamine. Frequently misdiagnosed as fish allergy. Mimics anaphylaxis *Antihistamines. Albuterol and epinephrine if needed.*ciguatoxin- ciguatera fish poisoning-Biological toxin builds up when isn eat toxic algae -Cannot be detected by smell or taste -Is not eliminated by cooking or freezing -Symptoms may last months or yearsthermometersImmersion probe➔Liquids oSurface probe➔griddles & pans oPenetration probe➔meats, fish, poultry,etc oAir probe➔air temperatureInfrared (laser) thermometersmeasure the temperature of food and equipment surfaces ie- grill top do not need to touch a surface to check temp can't measure air temp/internal temp of food distance: hold thermometer as close to food w/o touching it dont take readings through glass or metalTime-temperature indicators (TTI)Monitor both time and temperature Are attached to packages by the supplier A color change appears on the device when time-temperature abuse has occurredboiling point method1. Bring clean tap water to a boil 2. Submerge the sensing area of the thermometer stem or probe in the water for thirty seconds 3. Hold the calibration nut and rotate the thermometer head until it reads 212°F(100°C)Ice-point method1. Fill a large container with crushed ice and water. 2. Put the thermometer stem or probe into the water. 3. Adjust the thermometer so it reads 32 F (0 C)Food and Drug Administration (FDA)a federal agency charged with enforcing regulations against selling and distributing adulterated, misbranded, or hazardous food and drug products except: meat poultry eggsFDA Food Codea federal document which provides recommendations for safeguarding public health when food is offered to the consumerU.S. Department of Agriculturea governmental agency responsible for inspecting and rating meat for freshness and qualityCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)The primary federal agency that conducts and supports public health activities in the United States. The CDC is part of the US Department of Health and Human Services. o Investigating outbreaks of foodborne illness o Studying the causes and control of disease o Publishing statistical data and case studies in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)Public Health Service (PHS):A federal agency that conducts research into the causes of foodborne illness and assists with the investigation of outbreaks.Federal Levelrecommendations written to help states develop food-service regulationsState LevelFood service regulations are written based on the FDA food code or some modified form of it. This level will additionally, also enforce the regulations they write.Local levelStates regulations are enforced by city, county, and state health departmentsThe best way to prevent a backflow of contaminated water (backsiphonage) in your facility's plumbing is air gap *Cross-connections that may allow backsiphonage must be prevented. The best prevention is to create an air gap. Correctly installed sinks usually have 2 air gaps, one at the faucet and one at the drainpipe.Angel is in a hurry and running a rack of glasses through the dish machine. He pre-rinses them, loads them into a plate rack, runs them through the machine, and lets them air dry. What did he do wrong?uses the wrong rack to save time Explanation: Always pre-rinse dishwasher items, load them into the correct rack without overcrowding, and allow them to air dry.Which of the following is not considered an important part of a restaurant's personal hygiene plan?wearing your gloves all day *Explanation: Gloves can add an extra layer of protection after handwashing, but should be discarded and changed after four hours of continuous use.Which of these should be rejected?creamy soup received at 130°F Explanation: Hot TCS (time and temperature control for safety) foods must be received at 135°F or higher.Which of the following is not a part of good pest prevention?keep supplies 9 inches off the floor Explanation: Supplies should be kept 6 inches from the floor and wall.