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ENVR Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (50)
PM2.5 are very fine particles that can reach and lodge in the deepest regions of the lungs
Indoor air contamination frequently include
nitrogen compounds from stoves, fireplaces, and water heaters
chemicals from cleaning products
mold and bacteria
Your are in charge of designing a laboratory where flammable and explosive chemicals are used. The Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system must operate so that it can contain the chemicals in the laboratory as a safety measure in case a spill occurs. Your design will therefore include a ventilation system with which type of air pressure?
negative air pressure
Ground-level ozone (tropospheric) a major component of smog requires the presence of:
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
nitrogen oxides (NOVs)
- its all of these
Which of the following is correct as it relates to particulate matter?
some particulate matter is called PM2.5 because they are smaller than 2.5 microns
particulate matter can cause asthma and is a suspected carcinogen
particulate matter are solid or liquid particles found in the air
-all of these statements are true of particulate matter
Primary air pollutants include all of the following except:
(Primary air pollutants are carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides)
Power plants and factories are mobile sources of air pollutants
***For an indoor air quality problem to exist, which of the following elements must be present
- a person exposed to the contaminant and an exposure pathway
- a driving force to move the contaminant to the person exposed
- a contaminant must be present, such as radon, nitrogen oxides, tobacco smoke, or mold
Which of these following best describes the differences between a primary air pollutant and a secondary air pollutant?
Secondary pollutants are formed from primary pollutants interacting in the atmosphere
Air may contain
Volatile organic compounds (VOC5)
Biologicals (bacteria and mold)
***You have just purchased a block of land in downtown Houston and would like to develop it into an elementary school, but you are concerned that the soils and groundwater may be contaminated from prior use of the land. Which resource would be most helpful in determining if hazardous chemicals may have been stored on site in the past?
USDA Soil Survey Map
***You want to build a nuclear reactor in Japan, but you are concerned with the potential for earthquakes. What type of information source should you use to check on the risk of earthquakes in the region?
Surficial geologic map
You are planning to develop a site for a children's playground. The site history seems fine and there are no major concerns with previous contamination on the site itself. It is in a mostly residential are but one corner is adjacent to an abandoned industrial site. The Industrial site is well secured with fences to keep children out. Which of the following best describes concerns you may have about the playground site?
Large concerns about the land use on the industrial site. Contaminants from historical operations at the industrial site could have migrated to the playground site through the air, soil, or water
Which of these resources would we use to access the the flooding and erosion potential of soils on a given property while conducting an environmental assessment of that property?
Which of these resources would you use to calculate %slope across a given location?
Topographic maps differ from road maps in that that topographic map
show elevations and road maps do not
Using the map above, determine the elevation at the location indicated by the arrow labeled "D"?
***Using the map above, determine the percent slope between point A and point B. The distance between point A and point B is 0.5 miles. Elevations are in feet. Remember: 1 Mile = 5,280ft
Which of the following choices gives the correct order of processing waste in a sewage treatment plant?
removal of solids, breakdown of organics by bacteria, disinfection
In terms of pollution prevention and waste management, what is the preferred order (from most preferred to least preferred) for applying the five Rs (only the four that are prioritized are listed)?
refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle
The largest component of municipal solid waste (MSW) is
paper and paperboard
Why is recycling the least preferred method of the five Rs?
because recycling requires significant processing
In a waste water treatment plant, chlorination:
kills disease-causing organism
Sewage is typically aerated to kill various pathogens, including bacteria and viruses
John is exposed to Natron from an oral exposure. He swallows 800 mg and it is known that 65% of the substance is absorbed in the gut. A dose of 650 mg is acutely toxic to humans. Has John exceeded the toxic dose?
*** Examine the above dose-response graph and choose the letter that corresponds to the threshold level
I think it B
Xenobiotics are of particular concern because
These substances do not occur naturally and organisms have not adapted to them
These substances may be mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic, with the potential for both acute and chronic impacts
Many xenobiotics are widely used
The expression LC50 means
the concentration of toxin that kills 50% of the test organism after a specified period.
*** A dose of arsenic is best describes as
the amount of arsenic absorbed into the body by a person in a given time
The above table provides LC50 values for different chemicals which chemical is the most toxic?
Acute toxicity refers to
Use the data in the table above to calculate the concentrations of the solutions used in this toxicity study.
The calculated concentration in percent of 20 g of contaminant in 200 ml of solution
***Use the data in the table to calculate the % mortality and % concentration used in the toxicity study. Graph the dose-response curve for the data in the table. Assume that each concentration exposure starts with 78 live organisms. Based on the dose-response curve graph that you made. The approximate LC50 for this contaminant is
***All the following are examples of non-point source pollution except
A discharge pipe originating from the sewage disposal plant
___________ relates to the amount of suspended solids in water
Eutrophication is a process that leads to the death of many valuable fish and other aquatic organisms mainly because of which of the following?
Very low levels of dissolved oxygen
Excessive dead organic matter increases biologic oxygen demand (BOD) causing the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) to become too low to sustain life
_________ is a measure of the ability of water to pass an electrical current
A substance that releases hydroxide/hydroxyl ions in water solution is termed
Warm water holds more dissolved oxygen (DO) than cold water
A water-based solution with a pH of 4.20 is termed
When dissolved in water CO2 reacts with water to form
***Thermal pollution increases water temperature. Even relatively small changes in water temperature can stress fish by
Reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water
Increasing microbial activity to break down dead organic material
Increasing respiration in fish
In an experiment, one of your test groups is exposed to a concentration of arsenic at 5 mg/kg. Of the 50 organisms exposed 20 die. What is the percent mortality for that exposure group?
The primary pollutants most closely associated with the formation of photochemical smog are
nitrogen oxides and VOCs
*** Why do landfills burn off gases produced in the decomposition of trash?
Photosynthesis from organisms living in water uses CO2 which affects pH by
The graph above shows the results of a study that compared the the toxicants of Drug A (red squares), Drug B (blue triangles), and the combination of Drug A and B taken together (purple circles). Based on this dose-response graph, which of the following would be the least toxic?
Which one of the following is NOT an impact of high turbidity in water?
Ambient air is composed mostly of
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