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Psy of Aging Final Exam
Terms in this set (67)
Antioxidants in certain foods lead to increased mental stamina in old age
a descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena
- a study in which subjects are followed and periodically reassessed over a period of time
- ex// assign people to eat antioxidants or not and then track mental stamina over time
temporal order of events in which the cause precedes the effect
all genetic and health-related factors that affect development
If you are using a questionnaire to assess memory in older individuals, and each time you administer the questionnaire it produces different results, it can then be said that the measure has low
type of study that measures a variable across several age groups at the same time
development and aging involving both decline and growth
Relative to the population of older European Americans, the number of older Americans from racial minorities is
If we consider whether personality in young adulthood predicts personality in late adulthood, we are concerned with which of the following controversies or issues?
In a cross-sectional design, groups of participants who vary in age are studied at one point in time.
- degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone, most common from middle age onward. It causes pain and stiffness, especially in the hip, knee, and thumb joints.
- Some treatments include certain medications, physical therapy, and other joint movement regiments. Rheumatoid Arthritis is a disease in which the body will target its muscles or joints. This is also characterized through inflammation and can be treated with surgery, medication, or physical therapy.
An opaque spot called a cataract may develop on the lens, which limits the amount of light transmitted into the eye.
Women are especially susceptible to severe bone degeneration characterized by loss of bone mass and increased bone porosity.
One theory of aging that holds that organisms have only so much energy to expend in a lifetime. This theory would suggest that one way to increase life span might be to:
reduce the number of calories one eats.
occurs when blood supply to the heart is severely restricted or cut off.
results when the membranes around the air sacs in the lungs degenerate.
All of the following are typical changes in sleep as we age except
taking naps during the day results in better sleep at night.
Activities of Daily Life (ADL)
Typically identifies as five tasks of self-care: eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, and transferring from a bed to a chair.
Diseases with a rapid onset that last a relatively short time are termed acute diseases.
The best indicator of how long you will live is
the longevity of relatives.
Mrs. Jones recently had a stroke. According to the Verbrugge and Jette model, her likelihood of experiencing a disability most likely depends upon:
- extraindividual factors like her access to physical therapy
- intraindividual factors like her tendency to look on the bright side of life.
- risk factors like her exercise regim
Which of the following does NOT represent a typical age-related change in the immune system?
Older adults' immune systems are faster to build up defenses.
When the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, the resulting condition is called
The Competence Press Model
The Competence Press model is a measure that helps determine a person's level of competence based on their ability to function in five areas. These areas include: their level of health and if any health conditions are debilitating/adherent in any way. Their sensory-perceptual functions--i.e. do they have all of their senses and are any impaired. Their motor skills, or their physical ability level of functioning. How intact their cognition is--their memory, ability to think & plan, rational thought, etc. Their ego strength, which is how they view themselves and their capabilities, which can improve or decrease their competence in life.
The Environmental Press Model
The Environmental Press model focuses on how a person's environment affects them, such as certain stressors or demands that come from their social, interpersonal, or physical surroundings.
- There are three levels to this:
- the Adaptation level indicates a normal/neutral balance between environment and competence.
- The zone of maximum performance potential is an improved state of performance based on press.
- While the zone of maximum comfort is caused by a decrease in press.
In the PCP model, moving into a nursing home after suffering a fall would be considered a(n) corrective adaptation.
a person's potential ability to perform a wide range of activities considered essential for independent living, including aspects of physical, psychological, and social functioning.
assisted living facility.
A facility that provides assistance with personal care such as help with medication, housekeeping, laundry service, and meals but does not provide major medical care.
One of the nurses at John's nursing home always speaks to him in a way he feels is belittling. She often says things such as "Johnny, dear, we need to get you ready for the day, so hurry, hurry". What is the most likely potential consequence of this communication style?
Johnny will become resentful.
The typical nursing home resident is most likely to be:
widowed or divorced.
Special care units in nursing homes have been designed specifically to best suit the needs of clients with ______
Telomeres are located at the end of a chromosome and help DNA to replicate and prevent chromosomes from fusing together. Telomere length shortens every time DNA is replicated, but as they shorten they become less affective, which means that as an individual ages their telomeres shorten and cell genomes do not are not protected as well. This can result in disease, cancer, and death. An example of an environmental factor on telomeres, is stress. Stress can accelerate the shortening process in telomeres which can bring about increased cell aging, causing health related issues.
Speed of Processing
refers to how quickly and efficiently the early steps in information processing are completed.
The active processes and structures involved in holding information in mind and using that information to solve a problem, make a decision, or learn new information
Research evidence indicates that the oldest adults have more irrelevant thoughts during processing tasks and have more trouble keeping these irrelevant thoughts out of mind. This is evidence of
When first learning to drive a car, we are often aware of our processing and it seems to take all of our attention to coordinate our actions. This is an example of
what is an external memory aid?
a shopping list
Melena is having trouble remembering whether she took her medication or if she just thinks she did. This is an example of a difficulty with
assimilation refers to the use of currently available information to make sense out of incoming information.
an unexercised ability is the ability a normal, healthy adult would exhibit without practice or training
Experts and laypeople were found to have extremely high agreement on the factors that constitute intelligence. Which of the following was not one of those factors?
The hierarchy of intelligence from the lowest to highest levels is
test questions, tests, primary mental abilities, secondary mental abilities, general intelligence.
Post-formal thought is characterized by all of the following except
there is only one correct answer.
What describes expertise?
Experts tend to be more flexible and creative in ther field of expertise.
reflect the things that are important to people, their goals, and their major concerns in life.
Monty, a senior member of a successful law firm, enjoys working with interns, doing pro bono work as a public defender, and shows concern for the long-term well-being of the firm's junior members. According to Erikson, Monty is showing
Although there is an impressive collection of research supporting personality stability using the five-factor model, there is also research indicating personality change. Ursula Staudinger and colleagues' perspective reconciles these differences by suggesting personality takes on two forms:
adjustment & growth
The best conclusion to draw from research concerning the midlife crisis is that
there is little data to support its existence.
According to McAdams, the narrative that people create and revise throughout adulthood is a
Younger adults, compared with older adults, are more likely to have
In Alzheimer's Disease, damaged and dying neurons that collect around a core of amyloid protein produce
often done by a team of professionals who assess physical health, cognitive functioning, psychological functioning, daily living skills, and social and environmental resources as a way to measure, understand, and predict behavior.
In defining psychopathology in older adults, it is important to take into account not only the person's age and personal characteristics but also the
Impaired awareness of self and surroundings, attention deficits, disorientation, and a rapid change in symptoms and their severity are characteristic of
disease known primarily for its characteristic motor symptoms that include slow walking, difficulty getting into and out of chairs, and slow hand tremors
Dixie feels nervous and on edge all the time. She has had periods of dizziness, upset stomach, and hyperventilation that interfere will her ability to meet with friends or engage in her volunteer activities. Dixie is exhibiting hallmarks of which disorder?
refers to the degree to which people are similar and increases the chances of marital success.
includes grandparents and other relatives along with parents and children.
The term "sandwich generation" applies to
middle-aged people caring for both aging parents and their own children.
refers to the idea that the well-being of the family takes precedence over the concerns of individual family members.
A problem facing many people who never marry is that
there are numerous stereotypes and biases against single people in the United States.
is an approach that emphasizes factors that support and promote health, rather than factors that cause disease.
Immunization are a type of primary prevention, aimed at preventing a disease or condition from occuring.
Between now and 2030, older adults will come to expect to keep their more affluent lifestyles as well as the benefits they have accrued over their years of working. However, research indicates that
they will not, on average, have the financial savings necessary to support these expectations.
Due to slowing metabolism rates, older adults need
One well-known intergenerational conflict is between adolescents and their parents. A lesser known conflict that may have increased potential in the future is between
young/middle-aged adults and older adults.
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