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West Nile Virus is transmitted to humans by


Which of the following could be called "pathogens"?

viruses, bacteria, and viroids

All prokaryotic cells have

cell membranes and ribosomes

Protective layers outside the bacterial cell membrane include

cell walls and capsules

The process by which one bacterial cell transfers DNA to another is


Small circular molecules of DNA in bacteria are called


All but which one of the following bacterial structures are external to the cell?


Bacteria reproduce asexually by


In what way does prokaryotic fission resemble mitosis?


Cyanobacteria are


When nutrients are scarce, some bacteria

form endospores

Botulism toxin is produced by


Anthrax is caused by


Stomach ulcers are caused by

Helobacter pylori

Which of the following statements concerning the bacterium E. coli is NOT true?

It is capable of photosynthesis

Borrelia burgdorferi is the cause of

Lyme disease

Bacteria are able to respond to

chemicals, light, gravity, and oxygen concentration

The methane-producing bacteria (methanogens) have been isolated from

rock deep below the Earth's surface, deep ocean vents, human droppings, and termite guts

The extreme halophiles only survive in environments that are extremely high in


A virus is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

enzymes of respiration

Which of the following is NOT caused by a virus?


When a virus takes over the machinery of a cell, it forces the cell to manufacture

more viral particles

Which virus is an RNA virus?


Viroids differ from viruses in that the former lack

a protein coat

Infective proteins are known as


Mad cow disease is caused by a


A disease that is always present but usually restricted to a small part of the population is called


Four of the five answers listed below are bacterial structures. Select the exception.
A. endospore
B. pilus
C. capsule
D. eyespot
E. heterocyst

D. eyespot

Four of the five answers listed below are usually considered pathogenic. Select the exception
A. Anabaena
B. Bacillus anthracis
C. Chlamydia
D. Clostridium tetani
E. Borellia burgdorferi

A. Anabaena

One of the following does not rank in the top five human diseases causing the most deaths worldwide. Select the exception.
B. Diarrhea
C. Malaria
D. Polio
E. tuberculosis

D. Polio

Protists can be


Which of the following does NOT belong to the protistans?


The simplest of the eukaryotes are the


Most protistans are


All protists have


Which of the following is not a disease-causing flagellate?

Entamoeba histolytica

Trypanosomes that infect humans are transmitted by

biting insects

A contractile vacuole is important to euglenoids for

excess water removal

Which of the following specialized structures is NOT correctly paired with a function?

contractile vacuole - digestion

Paramecium is a representative of the


Which algae usually cause red tide?


Red tide can affect


Which of the following causes malaria?


The parasite Plasmodium infects cells of which of the following?

blood and liver

Sexual reproduction of the malaria parasite occurs in the ____ host.


The failure of the potato crop and the subsequent Irish famine was due mainly to a fungus belonging to which group?


Diatoms are characterized by all but which of the following?


Chalk deposits as seen in the White Cliffs of Dover were produced by


Kelp and Sargassum are examples of

brown algae

Holdfasts, gas-filled floats, and a thick leathery surface are found in species of

brown algae

A source for alginic acid, a thickening, emulsifying agent found in ice cream, salad dressing, beer, toothpaste, cough syrup, and floor polish, are the

brown algae

Most freshwater algae belong to which group?

green algae

The green algae, Chlamydomonas,

reproduces asexually
reproduces sexually
can form spores
can undergo meiosis

Red algae

are primarily marine organisms

Red algae can live in deeper water because of


Agar is produced by

red algae

Nori, used to wrap sushi, is derived from

red algae

Amoebas use pseudopods for

both movement and prey capture

Slime molds are classified as


The signal for aggregation and communal activity by cellular slime molds is

cyclic AMP

The first group with flowers were


Which of the following is true of xylem?

transports water and minerals

The cuticle of a plant is primarily for

rentention of water

Stomata are responsible for

water escape from the leaves and carbon dioxide entry

The earliest land plants were


Mosses are


What is the name given to the leaves of a fern?


A sorus is

a collection of spore-producing structures

Microspores mature into

pollen grains

Angiosperms are more advanced than gymnosperms because gymnosperms lack which structure found in angiosperms?


The vast majority of plant species are


The flowering plants and gymnosperms differ from other plants by


Dependence on animal vectors for fertilization and dispersal is characteristic of many species of


Which of the following is least likely to be found in an animal-pollinated plant?


The most nutritious agriculturally important seed is


Saprobes are

organisms that feed on dead material

Which of the following could NOT be used to describe any fungus?


The major groups of fungi are assigned names on the basis of

their reproductive structures

In most true fungi, the individual cellular filaments of the body are called


Groups of fungal filaments are called


Single-celled fungi are called


Which organism is a member of zygospore-forming fungi?

bread mold

Ascomycete is another name for

club fungi

Truffles fall into what fungal group?

sac fungi

Baking bread and making wine are dependent on

sac fungi

Most edible fungi are

club fungi

A lichen is a composite organism made up of

a fungus and an autotroph

The first colonizers of bare rock are often


Mycorrhizae and plants exhibit



increase plant growth
are symbionts
allow a plant to absorb more water
increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals

The most successful of the invertebrate groups with respect to the numbers of species is


Most animals show ____ symmetry.


All animals are

multicellular and heterotrophic, and lack cell walls

A digestive tract is said to be complete if it at least

is a one-way tube with a mouth and an anus

An acoelomate animal has

no coelom

Sponges are

filter feeders

Nematocysts are

defensive cells

Which of the following groups is characterized by radially symmetrical members?


The organs of excretion in flatworms are


A scolex

the anterior attachment organ of a tapeworm

Each tapeworm proglottid contains

both a complete male and a complete female reproductive system

Schistosome worms enter the human body

by penetrating the skin

Polychaetes are the only annelids that possess


The movement of earthworms is dependent on

circular muscles
longitudinal muscles
hydrostatic skeleton

A mantle is found only among the


Elephantiasis is caused by a blockage of the flow of


Exoskeletons are most characteristic of which of the following?


Molting in arthropods involves primarily a change in

body size

Arthropods usually detect odors with their


All of the following adaptations have contributed to the success of the insects EXCEPT

low reproductive capacity

Which of the following is the main organ for waste removal in the insects?

malpighian tubule

Which of the following spiders has enough venom to kill a person?

both black widow and brown recluse

Which arthropod is responsible for the most human deaths?


Which are deuterostomes?


Which group is strictly marine, with no freshwater or terrestrial forms?


Four of the five answers listed below are members of a common group. Select the exception.
A. Jellyfish
B. Hydra
C. sea squirts
D. Corals
E. sea anemones

C. sea squirts

Four of the five answers listed below are parasites. Select the exception.
A. planaria
B. fluke
C. nematodes
D. leech
E. tapeworm

A. planaria

Four of the five answers listed below are descriptive of annelids. Select the exception.
A. first segmented form
B. possess nephridia
C. have jointed appendages
D. have setae
E. have a complete gut with a closed circulatory system and coelom

C. have jointed appendages

Four of the five answers listed below are arthropods. Select the exception.
A. Barnacles
B. Crabs
C. Insects
D. Octopus
E. Ticks

D. octopus

Four of the five answers listed below are crustaceans. Select the exception.
A. crabs
C. lobsters
D. centipedes
E. barnacles

D. centipedes

The notochord is most closely associated with the

skeletal system

The most primitive vertebrates are members of the group of

jawless fishes

In fishes ancestral to land vertebrates, pouches in the gut wall developed into


The feeding habits of lampreys are best described as


Sharks, rays, and skates belong to what group?

cartilaginous fish

In true fishes, the gills primarily serve which function?

gas exchange

Amphibians are most dependent on an aquatic environment for


The mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous was probably caused by a(an)


The only reptiles with four-chambered hearts are the


Adaptations for flight in birds include all but which of the following?

sound production

Which feature do mammals share in common with all vertebrates?

a column of individual backbones

Mammals are the only vertebrates that possess

mammary glands

Live birth is characteristic of


Humans are least closely related to the


Which of the following can be included in the group called "hominids"?


Bipedalism is most highly developed in


The evolutionary trend of bipedalism refers to the

human ability to habitually walk on two feet

The most recent level of evolution in primates is considered to be in

behavior and culture

The earliest primitive primates resembled the modern

tree shrew

The early hominid fossils are found in


The primate fossil named Lucy was a(n)


It is thought that the earliest tools were employed by hominids to

facilitate the processing of food

The first to make use of controlled fires were


Fossil evidence suggests the earliest members of the genus Homo were

social, omnivorous, and tool makers

The species Homo sapiens is thought to be how many years old?


About 40,000 years ago, what kind of evolution replaced biological evolution in the shaping of modern humans?


A hominid of Europe and Asia that became extinct about 35,000 years ago was


Four of the five answers listed below are members of a common group. Select the exception.
A. Lancelet
B. jawed fish
C. jawless fish
D. sea squirt


Four of the five answers below are members of the same group. Select the exception.
A. angel fish
B. Catfish
C. Hagfish
D. Salmon

C. Hagfish

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