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300 terms

Bio 2 Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
West Nile Virus is transmitted to humans by
mosquitos
Which of the following could be called "pathogens"?
viruses, bacteria, and viroids
All prokaryotic cells have
cell membranes and ribosomes
Protective layers outside the bacterial cell membrane include
cell walls and capsules
The process by which one bacterial cell transfers DNA to another is
conjugation
Small circular molecules of DNA in bacteria are called
plasmids
All but which one of the following bacterial structures are external to the cell?
plasmid
Bacteria reproduce asexually by
...
In what way does prokaryotic fission resemble mitosis?
...
Cyanobacteria are
photoautotrophs
When nutrients are scarce, some bacteria
form endospores
Botulism toxin is produced by
clostridium
Anthrax is caused by
bacillus
Stomach ulcers are caused by
Helobacter pylori
Which of the following statements concerning the bacterium E. coli is NOT true?
It is capable of photosynthesis
Borrelia burgdorferi is the cause of
Lyme disease
Bacteria are able to respond to
chemicals, light, gravity, and oxygen concentration
The methane-producing bacteria (methanogens) have been isolated from
rock deep below the Earth's surface, deep ocean vents, human droppings, and termite guts
The extreme halophiles only survive in environments that are extremely high in
salt
A virus is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
enzymes of respiration
Which of the following is NOT caused by a virus?
botulism
When a virus takes over the machinery of a cell, it forces the cell to manufacture
more viral particles
Which virus is an RNA virus?
retrovirus
Viroids differ from viruses in that the former lack
a protein coat
Infective proteins are known as
prions
Mad cow disease is caused by a
prion
A disease that is always present but usually restricted to a small part of the population is called
endemic
Four of the five answers listed below are bacterial structures. Select the exception.
A. endospore
B. pilus
C. capsule
D. eyespot
E. heterocyst
D. eyespot
Four of the five answers listed below are usually considered pathogenic. Select the exception
A. Anabaena
B. Bacillus anthracis
C. Chlamydia
D. Clostridium tetani
E. Borellia burgdorferi
A. Anabaena
One of the following does not rank in the top five human diseases causing the most deaths worldwide. Select the exception.
A. AIDS
B. Diarrhea
C. Malaria
D. Polio
E. tuberculosis
D. Polio
Protists can be
decomposers
Parasites
photoautotrophs
Predators
Which of the following does NOT belong to the protistans?
Archaea
The simplest of the eukaryotes are the
Protistans
Most protistans are
unicellular
All protists have
nuclei
Which of the following is not a disease-causing flagellate?
Entamoeba histolytica
Trypanosomes that infect humans are transmitted by
biting insects
A contractile vacuole is important to euglenoids for
excess water removal
Which of the following specialized structures is NOT correctly paired with a function?
contractile vacuole - digestion
Paramecium is a representative of the
ciliates
Which algae usually cause red tide?
Dinoflagellates
Red tide can affect
Birds
Dolphins
Fish
Humans
Which of the following causes malaria?
apicomplexa
The parasite Plasmodium infects cells of which of the following?
blood and liver
Sexual reproduction of the malaria parasite occurs in the ____ host.
mosquito
The failure of the potato crop and the subsequent Irish famine was due mainly to a fungus belonging to which group?
oomycotes
Diatoms are characterized by all but which of the following?
flagella
Chalk deposits as seen in the White Cliffs of Dover were produced by
coccolithophores
Kelp and Sargassum are examples of
brown algae
Holdfasts, gas-filled floats, and a thick leathery surface are found in species of
brown algae
A source for alginic acid, a thickening, emulsifying agent found in ice cream, salad dressing, beer, toothpaste, cough syrup, and floor polish, are the
brown algae
Most freshwater algae belong to which group?
green algae
The green algae, Chlamydomonas,
reproduces asexually
reproduces sexually
can form spores
can undergo meiosis
Red algae
are primarily marine organisms
Red algae can live in deeper water because of
Phycobilins
Agar is produced by
red algae
Nori, used to wrap sushi, is derived from
red algae
Amoebas use pseudopods for
both movement and prey capture
Slime molds are classified as
protists
The signal for aggregation and communal activity by cellular slime molds is
cyclic AMP
The first group with flowers were
angiosperms
Which of the following is true of xylem?
transports water and minerals
The cuticle of a plant is primarily for
rentention of water
Stomata are responsible for
water escape from the leaves and carbon dioxide entry
The earliest land plants were
Bryophytes
Mosses are
Bryophytes
What is the name given to the leaves of a fern?
Frond
A sorus is
a collection of spore-producing structures
Microspores mature into
pollen grains
Angiosperms are more advanced than gymnosperms because gymnosperms lack which structure found in angiosperms?
Fruits
The vast majority of plant species are
angiosperms
The flowering plants and gymnosperms differ from other plants by
...
Dependence on animal vectors for fertilization and dispersal is characteristic of many species of
angiosperms
Which of the following is least likely to be found in an animal-pollinated plant?
...
The most nutritious agriculturally important seed is
...
Saprobes are
organisms that feed on dead material
Which of the following could NOT be used to describe any fungus?
autotrophic
The major groups of fungi are assigned names on the basis of
their reproductive structures
In most true fungi, the individual cellular filaments of the body are called
Hyphae
Groups of fungal filaments are called
Mycelia
Single-celled fungi are called
Yeast
Which organism is a member of zygospore-forming fungi?
bread mold
Ascomycete is another name for
club fungi
Truffles fall into what fungal group?
sac fungi
Baking bread and making wine are dependent on
sac fungi
Most edible fungi are
club fungi
A lichen is a composite organism made up of
a fungus and an autotroph
The first colonizers of bare rock are often
lichens
Mycorrhizae and plants exhibit
mutualism
Mycorrhizae
increase plant growth
are symbionts
allow a plant to absorb more water
increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals
The most successful of the invertebrate groups with respect to the numbers of species is
arthropoda
Most animals show ____ symmetry.
bilateral
All animals are
multicellular and heterotrophic, and lack cell walls
A digestive tract is said to be complete if it at least
is a one-way tube with a mouth and an anus
An acoelomate animal has
no coelom
Sponges are
filter feeders
Nematocysts are
defensive cells
Which of the following groups is characterized by radially symmetrical members?
Cnidaria
The organs of excretion in flatworms are
Protonephridia
A scolex
the anterior attachment organ of a tapeworm
Each tapeworm proglottid contains
both a complete male and a complete female reproductive system
Schistosome worms enter the human body
by penetrating the skin
Polychaetes are the only annelids that possess
parapods
The movement of earthworms is dependent on
circular muscles
longitudinal muscles
hydrostatic skeleton
Setae
A mantle is found only among the
mollusks
Elephantiasis is caused by a blockage of the flow of
lymph
Exoskeletons are most characteristic of which of the following?
arthropods
Molting in arthropods involves primarily a change in
body size
Arthropods usually detect odors with their
antennae
All of the following adaptations have contributed to the success of the insects EXCEPT
low reproductive capacity
Which of the following is the main organ for waste removal in the insects?
malpighian tubule
Which of the following spiders has enough venom to kill a person?
both black widow and brown recluse
Which arthropod is responsible for the most human deaths?
mosquitoes
Which are deuterostomes?
Echinoderms
Which group is strictly marine, with no freshwater or terrestrial forms?
Echinoderms
Four of the five answers listed below are members of a common group. Select the exception.
A. Jellyfish
B. Hydra
C. sea squirts
D. Corals
E. sea anemones
C. sea squirts
Four of the five answers listed below are parasites. Select the exception.
A. planaria
B. fluke
C. nematodes
D. leech
E. tapeworm
A. planaria
Four of the five answers listed below are descriptive of annelids. Select the exception.
A. first segmented form
B. possess nephridia
C. have jointed appendages
D. have setae
E. have a complete gut with a closed circulatory system and coelom
C. have jointed appendages
Four of the five answers listed below are arthropods. Select the exception.
A. Barnacles
B. Crabs
C. Insects
D. Octopus
E. Ticks
D. octopus
Four of the five answers listed below are crustaceans. Select the exception.
A. crabs
B.shrimps
C. lobsters
D. centipedes
E. barnacles
D. centipedes
The notochord is most closely associated with the
skeletal system
The most primitive vertebrates are members of the group of
jawless fishes
In fishes ancestral to land vertebrates, pouches in the gut wall developed into
...
The feeding habits of lampreys are best described as
Parasitic
Sharks, rays, and skates belong to what group?
cartilaginous fish
In true fishes, the gills primarily serve which function?
gas exchange
Amphibians are most dependent on an aquatic environment for
reproduction
The mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous was probably caused by a(an)
asteroid
The only reptiles with four-chambered hearts are the
crocodilians
Adaptations for flight in birds include all but which of the following?
sound production
Which feature do mammals share in common with all vertebrates?
a column of individual backbones
Mammals are the only vertebrates that possess
mammary glands
Live birth is characteristic of
...
Humans are least closely related to the
lemur
Which of the following can be included in the group called "hominids"?
humans
Bipedalism is most highly developed in
humans
The evolutionary trend of bipedalism refers to the
human ability to habitually walk on two feet
The most recent level of evolution in primates is considered to be in
behavior and culture
The earliest primitive primates resembled the modern
tree shrew
The early hominid fossils are found in
Africa
The primate fossil named Lucy was a(n)
Australopith
It is thought that the earliest tools were employed by hominids to
facilitate the processing of food
The first to make use of controlled fires were
...
Fossil evidence suggests the earliest members of the genus Homo were
social, omnivorous, and tool makers
The species Homo sapiens is thought to be how many years old?
...
About 40,000 years ago, what kind of evolution replaced biological evolution in the shaping of modern humans?
cultural
A hominid of Europe and Asia that became extinct about 35,000 years ago was
Neandertals
Four of the five answers listed below are members of a common group. Select the exception.
A. Lancelet
B. jawed fish
C. jawless fish
D. sea squirt
E.Squid
...
Four of the five answers below are members of the same group. Select the exception.
A. angel fish
B. Catfish
C. Hagfish
D. Salmon
E.Tuna
C. Hagfish
Four of the five answers below are principal characteristics of all chordates. Select the exception.
A. post-anal tail
B. bony vertebra
C. notochord
D. dorsal nerve cord
E. pharyngeal gill slits
B. bony vertebra
A community of cells and intercellular substances that interacts in one or more tasks is
a tissue
Extracellular fluid would NOT include
cytoplasm
Which of the following tissues is(are) the main transport tissues in plants?
phloem and xylem
Habitat includes
amount of sunlight
temperature variations
water availability
Which are examples of integrators?
brain, spinal cord
Which are examples of effectors?
muscles, glands
The control of the temperature of the body is an example of which of the following?
both a homeostatic mechanism and a negative feedback system
Which involves a positive feedback stimulation?
sexual stimulation
Circadian rhythms are cycles that occur approximately
once a day
What term is used for programmed cell death?
apoptosis
Four of the five answers listed below are related to ground tissue. Select the exception.
A. Pith
B. Xylem
C. Sclerenchyma
D. Parenchyma
E. Collenchymas
...
Four of the five answers listed below are functions of roots. Select the exception.
A. Support
B. synthesis of food
C. absorption of water and minerals
D. conduction of water and solutes
E. Anchorage
...
Four of the five answers listed below are related to roots. Select the exception.
A. Adventitious
B. Tap
C. fibrous
D. lateral
E. insectivorous
E. insectivorous
Four of the five answers listed below are parts of a leaf. Select the exception.
A. stoma
B. cuticle
C. mesophyll
D. node
E. petiole
D. node
Which of the following is not part of a shoot system?
root
The most common tissue in plants is ____ tissue.
...
Perpetually young tissues where cells retain the ability to divide are
meristematic
Which of the following is most involved in food storage?
ground tissue
Increases in stem length occur at the
apical meristem
Cells that are the main water-conducting cells of a plant are
tracheids and vessel members
Gaseous exchange occurs in plants through these structures in the epidermis.
stomata
Vascular bundles contain
xylem and phloem
The stalk that supports the individual dicot leaf is the
petiole
Deciduous plants
shed their leaves once a year
The main photosynthetic area of a leaf is composed of
mesophyll
Leaf veins are primarily what kind of tissue?
vascular
Most monocots have numerous ____ roots arising from the stem.
adventitious
Extensions of root epidermis used to increase absorption are called
root hairs
Which gives rise to lateral roots?
pericycle
Annual growth rings are formed in woody stems principally through the activities of the
vascular cambium
Plants in general require a total of how many essential elements for their growth and survival?
16
The inorganic soil constituent with the finest particles is
clay
____ 3. What is the organic constituent of soil called?
humus
Topsoil is found in
horizon A
The most productive soil is
loam
Nodules found on the roots of leguminous plants are involved in supplying which element for the plant?
nitrogen
Mycorrhizae are
fungus-root associations
Mycorrhizae
increase plant growth
are symbionts
allow a plant to absorb more water
increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals
The relationships of organisms in root nodules and mycorrhizae can be described as
symbiotic
The Casparian strip is associated with the
endodermis
The water and minerals absorbed by the roots usually first enter the
root hairs
Mineral uptake in plants occurs by way of
roots
Most of the water that enters the plant
is lost through transpiration
Which part of the theory of water transport states that hydrogen bonding allows water molecules to maintain a continuous fluid column as water is pulled from roots to leaves?
cohesion
Which of the following causes transpiration?
the drying power of air
Most of the water moving into a leaf is lost through
evaporation
Of all the water moving into a leaf, about what percent is used in photosynthesis, membrane functions, and other activities?
2
The waxy covering of the leaf is the
cuticle
If the cuticle is removed from a leaf, it will
lose water and wilt
The openings in leaves that function to exchange gases are called
stomata
The cells that surround stomata are
guard cells
The hormone that causes water-stressed plants to close their stomata is
ABA (abscisic acid)
In CAM plants,
stomata open at night
Ozone damage is lower in plants with high levels of vitamin
C
Carbohydrates are stored in plants in the form of
starch
Movement of soluble organic material through plants is known as
translocation
Sugars are usually carried throughout the plant in which tissue?
phloem
Insects used to study the process of translocation in plants are the
aphids
The source region in the pressure flow explanation of phloem transport is most often the
leaf
Large pressure gradients arise in sieve tube systems by means of
osmosis
The male part of a flower is the
stamen
The various flower parts are attached to the
style
Which forms the outermost whorl of flower parts?
sepals
The evolution of flowers and their insect pollinators is an example of
coevolution
Insects are attracted to flowers by
nectars
specific colors
specific color patterns
floral odors
Bees see flower patterns in what wavelength that humans cannot see?
ultraviolet light
Foul-smelling flowers may be pollinated by
beetles and flies
The process during which the diploid set of chromosomes becomes haploid is
meiosis
Megaspores
are haploid
give rise to the embryo sac
will develop into the gametophyte
are female rather than male
The female gametophyte is the
ovule
The primary function of the endosperm is
nutrition
Pollination occurs when pollen contacts the
stigma
The endosperm is usually
triploid
The zygote is
haploid
What kind of fruit is formed from carpels of several associated flowers?
simple
Fruit is produced from the development of the
ovary
Each of the following is a simple fruit EXCEPT
sunflower
Which of the following fruits is not classified as a berry?
lemon
The primary purpose of fruits is
dispersing the seeds
Strawberries reproduce by
runners
The most critical factor affecting the initiation of seed germination is
A. increasing day length
B. oxygen availability
C. water absorption
D. Warmth
E. none of these is most critical; all are equal
E. none of these
The resumption of growth after a period of arrested embryonic development is
Parthenogenesis
The plant hormone that promotes cell division is
cytokinin
The plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening is
Ethylene
The plant hormone that promotes dormancy in plants and seeds is
abscisic acid
The plant hormone thought to be involved with tropism is
auxin
Synthetic auxins are used as
herbicides
The biological clock of plants is set when ____ absorbs light
Phytochrome
Day-neutral plants are
able to bloom when they are old enough
All the processes that lead to the death of a plant or any of its organs are called
Senescence
Embryonic cells that have the potential to become any cell type are called
stem cells
The tissue that lines internal surfaces of the body is
epithelial
Epithelial cells are specialized for all the following functions EXCEPT
contraction
Human skin is primarily what type of epithelium?
stratified squamous
Adhering and gap junctions are found at the
plasma membrane
The secretion of tears, milk, sweat, and oil are functions of what tissue?
epithelial
Which epithelial cell is best suited for diffusion?
simple squamous
Which of the following is not included in connective tissues?
skeletal muscle
What type of tissue is blood?
connective
An extracellular ground substance is characteristic of
connective tissue
Fibroblasts are characteristic of what tissue type?
connective tissue
Dense fibrous tissues that connect muscle to bone are called
tendons
Collagen fibers are characteristic of which tissue?
connective
Bones are linked together at skeletal joints by
ligaments
Cartilage is found
in the nose
at the ends of bones
in the external ear
between vertebrae
If its cells are striated and fused at the ends so that the cells contract as a unit, the tissue is
cardiac muscle
Muscle that is not striated and is involuntary is
smooth
Which muscle type is considered voluntary?
skeletal
Rapid communication throughout the body is accomplished through
neurons
What neurons in the CNS integrate information?
interneurons
Which of the following represents the correct hierarchy of organization in the human body?
cells tissues organs organ systems
Of the following organs, which is NOT in the abdominal cavity?
heart
Muscle cells are produced by
the mesoderm
The lining of the intestinal tract is produced by
the endoderm
The endocrine system functions in
hormonal control of body functioning
Maintaining the volume and composition of body fluids is the direct responsibility of which system?
urinary
Which system is involved with body movement?
muscular system
Integration of body functions is controlled by the
both nervous and endocrine systems
Which system produces blood cells?
skeletal
The protein that helps make vertebrate skin tougher and more waterproof is
keratin
The two major divisions of the vertebral nervous system are the
central and perphial nervous systems
The peripheral nervous system is further divided into the ____ and ____ nervous systems.
autonomic, somatic
Interneurons are mostly found in the ____ nervous system.
central
The single long process that extends from a typical motor nerve cell is the
axon
Within a single neuron, the direction an impulse follows is
dendrite cell body axon
At rest, a nerve cell has a high concentration of ____ inside and a high concentration of ____ outside.
potassium, sodium
The resting potential of a neuron is approximately
-70 millivolts
The membrane-bound enzyme system that restores and maintains the resting membrane potential is which of the following pumps?
sodium-potassium
Which is a junction between two neurons?
chemical synapse
Which bridges the gap between a neuron sending a message and the neuron receiving it?
neurotransmitter
Active chemicals found in cigarettes, tea, coffee, and soft drinks are examples of which of the following?
stimulant
Pain relievers that mimic endorphins and enkephalins are
stimulants
Substances that alter sensory perception, cause disorientation, and inhibit the ability to perform complex tasks are
hallucinogens
Alcohol acts as a
depressant
By definition, a "nerve" is
a dendrite
What is the name of the condition in which there is a deterioration of the myelin sheaths of the neurons in the spinal cord?
multiple sclerosis
In the knee-jerk reflex arc, the synapse between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron occurs where?
within the spinal cord
The autonomic subdivision consists specifically of
parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves
Signals from the parasympathetic nervous system cause which of the following?
increase in digestive system movements
During the "fight-flight" response, which of the following would be in use?
sympathetic nervous system and epinephrine
The brain and spinal cord are covered by the protective
meninges
The part of the brain that deals with the basic drives such as hunger, sex, and thirst is the
hypothalamus
The center for balance and posture is the
cerebellum
The part of the brain that controls the basic responses necessary to maintain life processes (breathing, heartbeat) is the
medulla oblongata
The center of consciousness and intelligence is the
cerebrum
The left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for
language skills
The right hemisphere of the cerebrum is specialized for
music interpretation
Which area of the brain helps to translate thoughts into speech by controlling tongue, throat, and lip muscles?
Broca's area
The occipital lobe of the brain is responsible for
vision
The limbic system is involved in control of
emotions