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CH10 Weathering, Karst Landscapes, and Mass Movement
Elemental Geosystems, Chistopherson 6th Ed, Chapter 10
Terms in this set (37)
The science of landforms- their origin, evolution, form, and spatial distribution.
Refers to all processes that wear away at or rearrange landforms:
weathering, mass movement, erosion, and transportation.
The effect of different resistance in rock, coupled with variations in the intensity of physical and chemical weathering.
dynamic equilibrium model
The balancing act between tectonic uplift and erosion, between the resistance of crust material and the work of denudation processes. Landscapes evidence of ongoing adaption to rock structure, climate local relief and elevation.
The threshold up to which landforms change before lurching to a new set of relationships, with rapid realignments of landscape materials and slopes.
Curved, inclined surfaces that bound landforms.
The convex upper portion of a typical slope.
Process by which surface and subsurface rocks disintegrate, dissolve, or are otherwise broken down through physical, organic and chemical weathering.
Partially weathered rock.
End product of weathering; rocky layer that overlies and protects unaltered bedrock
The rock of Earth's crust that is below the soil and basically unweathered.
Is sometimes exposed as an outcrop.
Fine-grained mineral matter that is transported and deposited by air, water, or ice.
The unconsolidated material, from both organic and mineral sources, that is the basis of soil development.
Fractures or separations in rock without displacement of the sides.
Joints increase the surface area exposed to weathering process.
The breaking and disintegrating of rock without any chemical alteration.
Mechanical or fragmentation weathering.
A powerful mechanical force produced as water expands up to 9% of its volume as it freezes.
Water freezing in a cavity in a rock can break the rock if it exceeds the rock's tensional strength.
Weathering of the peeled slabs.
Exfoliation process as pressure is released on exposed granitic batholith. Granite responds with peeling layers of rock in curved slabs or plates (pressure-release jointing).
A dome-shaped feature of weathering, produced by the response of granite to the overburden removal process, which relieves pressure from the rock. Layers of rock slough off in slabs or shells.
Decomposition and decay of minerals in rock.
Water is essential, with rates keyed to temperature and precipitation values.
Chemical reactions are active at microsites even in dry climates.
Processes include hydrolysis, oxidation, carbonation, and solution.
Chemical weathering that occurs in cracks in rocks.
Sharp edges and corners become rounded.
A chemical weathering process involving water that is added to a mineral, which initiates swelling and stress within the rock, mechanically forcing grains apart as the constituents expand.
A chemical weathering process in which minerals chemically combine with water.
A decomposition process that causes silicate minerals in rocks to break down and become altered.
Reaction of oxygen with certain metallic elements.
(Rusting of iron producing iron oxide.)
A process of chemical weathering by a weak carbonic acid (water and carbon dioxide) that reacts with many minerals containing calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium - especially limestone - transforming them into carbonates.
Distinctive topography formed in a region of chemically weathered limestone with poorly developed surface drainage and solution features that appear pitted and bumpy.
Nearly circular depressions created by the weathering of karst landscapes.
The general downhill movement of material because of gravity.
Free-falling movement of debris from a cliff or steep slope, generally falling straight down or bounding downslope.
A mass of falling and tumbling rock, debris, and soil.
Can be dangerous because of the tremendous velocities achieved by the onrushing materials.
Slow downslope movement of soil/rock due to expansion/contraction of surface materials (shallow, depends on slope and soil type), water pressure, freeze/thaw, grazing, earthquakes, digging.
Movement of surface material along a planar surface.
Movement of surface material along a concave surface.
Human-induced mass movemnets of Earth materials, such as large-scale open-pit mining and strip mining.
angle of repose
The steepness (33-37 degrees) of the slope that results when loose sand comes to rest depends on the size and texture of the grains.
The critical shear-failure point.
The threshold up to which landforms change before lurching to a new set of relationships, witch rapid realignments of landscape materials and slopes.
High moisture content in moving material.
A large amount of movement of regolith or bedrock that is not saturated with moisture.
Mass of falling and tumbling rock, soils and debris at high speeds.
Often results from ice and water that fluidize the debris.
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