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63 terms

Microbio 3b

STUDY
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Rickettsia and Orienta - Morphology, and General manifestations similar to all types,
MORPHOLOGY
Atypical; small coccobacilli; oblicate intracelluar parasites

General Manifestations:

abrupt onset, fever for 2-3 weeks, rash, and flu-like symptoms
Match the agent with the disease with the vector:

a. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
b. Epidemic typhus
c. Murine typhus
d. Scrub typhus

a. R. typhi
b. Orientia tsutsugamushi
c. R. rickettsii
d.R. prowazekii


a. tick
b.fleas
c. louse
d. mite
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - tick - R. rickettsii


Epidemic typhus - louse - R. prowazekii

Murine typhus - fleas - R typhi


Scrub typhus - mite - Orientia tsutsugamushi"
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Morphology, General Disease Name, the 3 Disease progressions, General Disease Manifestations, and General Tx considerations/concerns.
MORPHOLOGY:
Acid-Fast Bacilli (acids and lipids in cell wall)



DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
General Manifestation: pulmonary lesions (tubercules); can disseminate to kidney, liver, testes, CNS;

Tx:
multi-drug resistant, combine abx and anti-TB drugs for Tx


Primary TB ==> Secondary TB ==> Miliary TB:
Describe Primary TB:
mild/asymptomatic

bacteria breathed into alveoli, multiply in lungs, and taken up by macrophages

bacteria multiple in the macrophage, which carry them to lymph nodes

come into contact w/ T-cells

CMI slows down grown (takes ~30days)

TB test becomes positive

chest X-ray may present growing patches

bacteria are contained in tubercle, resulting in "spontaneous" healing in 75-90%
Describe Secondary TB:
after time, CMI fails

tubercles become necrotic, become caseous, forming the Ghon complex

macrophages activate, disperse IL-1 and Cathectin (necrosis factor), which interferes with lipid metabolism, causing weight loss

Ghon complex enlarges in 6% of cases, with caseous sputum and major organ involvement

3% of cases have rapid CMI failure, leading to miliary TB
Describe Miliary TB:
lesions resemble bird seed; occurs in < 5% of cases, primarily immunoincompetent pts; dissiminates to organs and is usually fatal
Listeria monocytogenes - MORPHOLOGY
GPB, aerobic, non-spore
Listeria monocytogenes - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
food poisening (deli meat and unpastuerized cheese), meningitis
Listeria monocytogenes - VIRULENCE:
intracellular pathogens in soil, forage, animal fecus LAB routine
Corynebacterium diphtheriae - MORPHOLOGY
GPB, aerobic, non-spore, pleomorphic
Corynebacterium diphtheriae - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Diphtheria:

pseudomembrane forms in throat; toxins affect myocardium/other tissues; necrotic tissue meshed in fibrous exudate, blocking respiratory track
Bacillus anthracis - MORPHOLOGY
GPB, spore-forming, aerobic, grows rapidly on blood-agar
Bacillus anthracis - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Pulmonary Anthrax:

Wool-sorter's disease; biological warefare/terrorism; highly infectious; 1-6 day incubation; initial flu-like symptoms and chest pn (widen mediastinum), need chest xray

Cutaneous Anthrax:

skin infections, leading to systemic infection; responds will to abx
Bacillus anthracis - PREVALENCE, MORTALITY
Pulmonary:

less common, 60-100%, mortality rate;

Cutaneous Anthrax:

more common, 20% mortality
Bacillus anthracis - VIRULENCE:
Pulmonary:

aerosol inhalation spores germinate into bacteria, phagocytic cells carry spores to lymph nodes, produce toxins


Cutaneous:

spores enter through cuts/abrasion; papules ==> blisters ==> necrotic lesions with black scab LAB grows rapidiily on blood agar (neg hemolysis), aerobic, spore forming
Bacteroides fragilis - MORPHOLOGY
GNB, pleomorphic, anaerobe
Bacteroides fragilis - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Aspiration pneumonia (which leads into) empyema, lung abscess, deep wound abcesses; opportunistic
Clostridium spp.

Match the disease with the strand with the virulence factor.

a. C. perfringens:
b. C. tetani
c. C. difficile
d. C. botulinium

a. abx assoc. diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis
b. food poisoning
c. food poisening, tissue invasion, gas gangrene
d. tetanus, lockjaw

a. enterotoxins and invasive enzymes
b. neurotoxins
c. exotoxin overgrowth
d. healt-lible toxin
C. perfringens: food poisening, tissue invasion, gas gangrene; enterotoxins and invasive enzymes

C. difficile: abx assoc. diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis; exotoxin overgrowth

C. botulinium: food poisoning; healt-lible toxin

C. tetani: tetanus, lockjaw; neurotoxins
Clostridium spp.
Morphology
GPB, spore forming, anaerobe
Treponema pallidum - MORPHOLOGY
Spirochete, non-staining
Treponema pallidum - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Syphilis
Treponema pallidum - VIRULENCE:
Direct contact w/ chancre (infectious lesion
Treponema pallidum - Lab Uniquness
ID by Ag detection methods (RPR), or dark field microscopic exam of lesion fluid
Borrelia burgdorferi - MORPHOLOGY
Spirochete, non-staining
Borrelia burgdorferi - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Lyme Disease:

early stage asymptomatic, difficult to differentiate; 5 cm skin lesion and neuro/cardiac involvement, i.e. encephalitis/fasical palsy
Borrelia burgdorferi - VIRULENCE:
ticks, deer tick bites

LAB IFA, ELA
Leptospira interrogans - MORPHOLOGY
Spirochete, non-staining
Leptospira interrogans - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Leptospirosis: fever, headache, myalgia, chills, conjunctivitis, renal/liver failure
Leptospira interrogans - VIRULENCE:
contact with infected animal urine or contaminated water
Francisella tularensis - MORPHOLOGY
GNB, very small
Francisella tularensis - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Tularmeia; biological threat agent
Francisella tularensis - VIRULENCE:
contact with tissues, blood, body fluids
Legionella pneumophila - MORPHOLOGY
GNB, pleomorphic, stain poorly
Legionella pneumophila - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Legionnaires (pneumonia)
Legionella pneumophila - Lab uniqueness
tests for Ag in urine/fluids
Bordetella pertussis - MORPHOLOGY
GNCB
Bordetella pertussis - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Pertussis (whooping cough); mild bronchitis (re-emerging)
Bordetella pertussis - VIRULENCE:
toxin and thick exudate
Haemophilus influenzae - MORPHOLOGY
GNB
Haemophilus influenzae - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Fulminating meningitis:

invades nasopharyx mucosa, gets into bloodstream; esp in children < 3 years and elderly

Epiglottitis and laryngitis

Otitis media

Sinusitis

Pneumonia: (infrequent)
Haemophilus influenzae - Vaccine Information; which disease susceptive?
Vaccine available Type B HI:

Fulminating meningitis:

Epiglottitis and laryngitis
Haemophilus influenzae - EPIDEMIOLOGY
obligate parasites

may be part of upper resp tract and mouth normal flora

infection between 2 months and 2 years
Haemophilus influenzae - VIRULENCE:
Polysaccharide capsule, fimbrae pili, IgA protease, ciliostatic factor
Haemophilus influenzae - Lab Uniqueness
chocolate agar; ID from CSF
Moraxella catarrhalis - MORPHOLOGY
GNC
Moraxella catarrhalis -DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Upper Resp tract infections otitis media, & sinusitis, mostly in children

Bronchiits and Pneumonia in children and adults
Moraxella catarrhalis - EPIDEMIOLOGY
3rd common cause of children otitis media/sinusitis
Moraxella catarrhalis - VIRULENCE:
endotoxins, complement resistance, beta-lactamase production
Neisseria meningitis - MORPHOLOGY
GNC; several Ag groups
Neisseria meningitis - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
major cause of Meningitis, secondary necrosis
Neisseria meningitis - EPIDEMIOLOGY
predominates school-aged/college children
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - MORPHOLOGY
GNC
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Primary Disease
Gonorrhea:

Males - Urethritis

Females - endocervix and/or PID

may be asympotmatic, causing more damage

symptoms 2-5 days

may accompany Chlamydia Pharyngitis and Rectal Infection

Secondary Disease:
Septic Arthritis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - EPIDEMIOLOGY
Sexual transmission, asymptomatic carriage
Chlamydia trachomatis - MORPHOLOGY
very small atypical and unusual GNB
Chlamydia trachomatis - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
STD:

Incubation 7-14 days; causes urethritis in males (possibly epididymitis and infertility) cervicitis, in women, often asympotomatic (possibly salpingitis, infertility, and/or PID) can occur with gonarrhea

Trachoma: (TRIC)

Trachemoa Inclusion Conjunctivitis disease, leading to blindness

Lymphogranuloma Verereum:

Involvement in lymph nodes
Chlamydia trachomatis - VIRULENCE:
STDs
Chlamydia trachomatis - Lab Uniqueness
requires living host; collection kit includes cell culture vial
Chlamydophila pneumoniae - MORPHOLOGY
small atypical GNB
Chlamydophila pneumoniae - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, with aysmptomatic or with persistant cough; possible atheroclerosis
Mycoplasma pneumoniae - MORPHOLOGY
small atypical GNB, no cell walll, poorly staining
Mycoplasma pneumoniae - DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS:
Primary Atypical Pneumonia: (AKA walking pneumonia):

symptoms occur w/in 1-3 wks, inclu flu-like symptoms, minimal sputum; may progress to one lobe to bilateral; often lasts more than a month
Mycoplasma pneumoniae - EPIDEMIOLOGY
more common in children and military