Only $35.99/year

SHRM-CP HR Competencies - 5-2021

Terms in this set (44)

Coercive- Leader imposes a vision/solution on the team and demands team follow this directive (Effective during crises when immediate and clear action is required)

Authoritative- Leader proposes a bold vision/solution and invites team to join this challenge (Effective when there is no clear path forward and when proposal is compelling and captures the team's imagination. They are encouraged to contribute their own ideas and take risks)

Affiliative- Leader creates strong relationships with and inside the team, encouraging feedback. Members are motivated by loyalty (Effective at all times and esp when a leader has inherited a dysfunctional and dispirited team that needs to be transformed. Leader must have strong relationship-building and mgmt skills)

Democratic- Leader invites followers to collaborate and commits to acting by consensus (Effective when leader does not have a clear vision or anticipates strong resistance to a change. Members must be competent; leaders must have strong communication skills)

Pacesetting- Leader sets a model for high performance standards and challenges followers to meet these expectations (Effective when teams are composes of highly competent and internally motivated ees)

Coaching- Leader focuses on developing team members skills, believing that success comes from aligning the org's goals with ees personal and professional goals (Effective when leaders are highly skilled in strategic mgmt, communication and motivation and when they can manage their time to include coaching as a primary activity. Members must also be receptive to coaching)
Trait Theory/Great Man Theory- Leaders possess certain innate characteristics that followers do not possess and cannot acquire

Behavioral Theory- Leaders influence group members through certain behaviors (Blake-Mouton Theory)



Blake-Mouton Theory- Leadership involves managing- Tasks (Work that must be done to attain goals), EEs (Relationships based on social and emotional needs)

5 Types of Mgrs-
Country club mgrs- Low task, high relationship. Create secure atmosphere and trust individuals to accomplish goals, avoiding punitive actions so as not to jeopardize relationships

Impoverished Mgrs- Low task, low relationship. Use a delegate-and-disappear mgmt style. They detach themselves, creating power struggles

Authoritarian Mgrs- High task, low relationship. Expect people to do what they are told without question and tend not to foster collaboration

Middle-of-the-road Mgrs (midpoint on both task and relationship). Get the work done but are not considered leaders

Team Leaders (High task, high relationship). Lead by positive example, foster a team environment and encourage individual and team development



Situational Theories- Building on behavioral theories, these theories propose that leaders can flex their behaviors to meet the needs of unique situations, employing both task or directive behaviors and relationship or supportive behaviors with ees (Hershey-Blanchard Situational Leadership, Fidler's Contingency Theory, Path-Goal Theory)

Hershey-Blanchard Situational Leadership- Leaders adapt their behaviors to meet the evolving needs of team members. Behaviors involve tasks and relationships. As team members grow in skill and experience, leaders supply the appropriate behavior- Telling, Selling, Participating, Delegating

Telling- When ee is not yet motivated or competent

Selling- Increasingly competent ee still needs focus and motivation (why are we doing this)

Participating- When competent workers can be included in problem solving and coached on higher skills

Delegating- When very competent team members can benefit from greater levels of autonomy and self-direction




Fidler's Contingency Theory- Leaders can change the situation to make it more favorable, more likely to produce good outcomes; Situation favorableness occurs when- leader-member relationships are strong, task structure and requirements are clear, leader can exert necessary power to reach group's goal. Unfavorable situations must be changed to improve group and leader effectiveness, which includes- improving relations btw leader and team, changing aspects of task, increasing/decreasing leader's exercise of power



Path-Goal Theory- Emphasizes leader's role in coaching and developing followers' competencies. Leader performs the behavior needed to help ees stay on track toward their goals. This involves addressing different types of ee needs-

Directive- Help ee understand task and goal

Supportive- Try to fulfill ees relationships needs

Achievement- Motivate by setting challenging goals

Participative- Provide more control over work and leverage group expertise through participative decision making



Emergent Theory- Leaders are not appointed but emerge from the group which chooses the leader based on interactions
Situational Theories- Building on behavioral theories, these theories propose that leaders can flex their behaviors to meet the needs of unique situations, employing both task or directive behaviors and relationship or supportive behaviors with ees (Hershey-Blanchard Situational Leadership, Fidler's Contingency Theory, Path-Goal Theory)

Hershey-Blanchard Situational Leadership- Leaders adapt their behaviors to meet the evolving needs of team members. Behaviors involve tasks and relationships. As team members grow in skill and experience, leaders supply the appropriate behavior- Telling, Selling, Participating, Delegating

Telling- When ee is not yet motivated or competent

Selling- Increasingly competent ee still needs focus and motivation (why are we doing this)

Participating- When competent workers can be included in problem solving and coached on higher skills

Delegating- When very competent team members can benefit from greater levels of autonomy and self-direction



Fidler's Contingency Theory- Leaders can change the situation to make it more favorable, more likely to produce good outcomes; Situation favorableness occurs when- leader-member relationships are strong, task structure and requirements are clear, leader can exert necessary power to reach group's goal. Unfavorable situations must be changed to improve group and leader effectiveness, which includes- improving relations btw leader and team, changing aspects of task, increasing/decreasing leader's exercise of power



Path-Goal Theory- Emphasizes leader's role in coaching and developing followers' competencies. Leader performs the behavior needed to help ees stay on track toward their goals. This involves addressing different types of ee needs-

Directive- Help ee understand task and goal

Supportive- Try to fulfill ees relationships needs

Achievement- Motivate by setting challenging goals

Participative- Provide more control over work and leverage group expertise through participative decision making
Theory X leaders micromanage and coerce team members because thy believe people do not like to work and must be strictly controlled and forced to work

Theory Y leaders believe ees dislike rigid controls and want to accomplish something, so leaders apply a participative style that empowers ees


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Needs Theory- Individuals are motivated by desire to satisfy certain needs. Understanding these needs allows leaders to offer the right incentives and create the most motivational external environments

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Maslow- 5 basic categories of needs must be met in an ascending order; Lower level must be satisfied in order for higher-level need to emerge. No need is totally ever satisfied. Lower-level needs will always have some influence on behavior-
Physiological (basic needs related to survival)
Safety and security
Belonging and love (need to belong and be accepted)
Esteem (self-esteem and admiration of others)
Self-actualization (need to fulfill one's potential)


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Herzberg- Behavior is driven by intrinsic factors (innate desires) and extrinsic factors (workplace hygiene)

Intrinsic factors- challenging work, meaningful impact of work, recognition
Extrinsic factors- job security, pay, conditions

Satisfying hygiene factors can remove some areas of discontent that interfere with motivation, but satisfactory workplace conditions are not enough in themselves to create motivation; motivation is created by appealing to individual desires/needs. Good workplace conditions do not positively affect motivation, however unacceptable conditions will lead to job dissatisfaction and can make motivated ee look for another job



XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
McClelland- Individuals are motivated by 3 basic desires-
Achievement (accomplishment)
Affiliation (feeling part of a group)
Power (influence/control over others)

EEs have all 3 needs but the needs relative importance may vary among individuals. Effective leaders identify and appeal to each ees primary motivators
(EX. Achievement-oriented ees- should get an assignment that will require and call attn to ees abilities; affiliation-oriented ees- leader should incorporate socialization events or opportunities into team schedules; power-oriented-Leaders should delegate tasks that they can control and direct


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Self-determination- Individuals are motivated by innate needs (achievement), and relatedness (affiliation) but also by needs for-
Autonomy or need to feel that one has control over one's life
Purpose or sense that one's actions have effect beyond the individual or workplace


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Expectancy Theory- Effort increases in relation to one's confidence that the behavior will result in a positive outcome and reward

Vroom- Level of effort depends on- All three factors must be addressed to motivate ees
Expectancy- With reasonable effort, the ee can succeed
Instrumentality- Success will result in reward
Valence- Reward is meaningful to the ee


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Attribution Theory- The way a person interprets the causes for past success of failure is related to the present level of motivation. Leader ca help ee attribute results to the correct causes and create opportunities for success

Heider, Weiner- Success or failure can be attributed to internal factors (skills, diligence), or external factors (available resources, market events). Internal factors may be under ees control but external factors are probably beyond ees control; a track record of success can create empowered and resilient ees while a track record of failure can create "learned helplessness" and even aggression or hostility in workplace; Leaders can create opportunities for success for less experienced ees by providing more resources, coaching and guidance. More challenging assignments are given to ees who believe they can succeed


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Goal-setting Theory- Motivation can be increased by providing ees with goals against which they can assess their achievement; ees should be involved in designing goals and supported in achieving them

Effective goals are-
Specific and clear, important to ee, realistic but challenging. Unrealistically high goals can harm motivation
Hall (High- and Low-Context Cultures)- Context level affects communication and relationships

High-context (no business until I get to know you personally)- a statement's meaning includes verbal msg and nonverbals and social and historic content attached; long-standing networks of relationships, blur line btwn business and social lives, implicit and rules are applied flexibly

Low-context (not personal, just business. Ex. US) - a statement's meaning is encoded in its words only; individuals know each other less well and dont share common database of experience, communication is explicit

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Hofstede (dimensions of culture)- Six dimensions
Power Distance- Pattern of distribution of power to culture's members; power is distributed in a culture, unequal distribution is perceived by culture's less powerful members. In a high power distance culture, class may be inherited at birth; low power distance cultures minimize the importance of class differentiation

Individualism/Collectivism- Degree to which individuals perceive themselves as members of a group; how members of society relate to each other. For individual cultures, clans and family are less important than individual achievement. In collectivist, one's membership in a group is more important than individual identity

Uncertainty Avoidance- Level of tolerance of ambiguous, new, or changed situations; how members of a culture feel about uncertainty and lack of clarity; cultures that avoid uncertainty tend to be more rigid about rules and uncomfortable with change

Masculine/Feminine- Degree to which a culture follows traditional gender characterizations (masculine- rigid, competitive; feminine- nurturing, sharing); Extent to which a culture embodies specific traditional gender images. Masculine culture will be oriented toward competition and achievement; feminine culture is empathetic, nurturing and collaborative

Long-term/Short-term- Long-term cultures focus on traditions and tend to resist change; short-term cultures are more pragmatic and see positive potential of change. Refers to the way the culture sees the effect of the past on the future; a long-term or normative culture tends to use traditions as a guide and values loyalty; short-term make decisions based on likely results

Indulgence/Restraint- Gratification of individual desires. An indulgent culture believes in fun and pleasure; restrained society controls its desires according to social norms

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner (cultural dimensions)-
7 dilemmas that illustrate points cultural tension

Universal/Particular- Flexibility versus rules. Universal has set of rules applied to each case; Particular considers context of each case

Individual/Communitarian (Collectivist)- The good that drives decision (the individual or society as a whole). Individualist cultures are free to consider own needs and opportunities. Collectivists must consider how actions affect group

Neutral/Affective- Expression of emotion; Neutral cultures control outward expression; Affective display emotions in public

Specific/Diffuse- Public and private boundaries. Boundary btween public and private lives. Specific cultures distinguish btw the 2; Diffuse cultures allow public access into private life once certain conditions are fulfilled

Achieved/Ascribed- Source of merit (personal accomplishment or connection). achieved cultures judge individuals according to their own accomplishments; Ascribed cultures judge by one's class, gender, family connections etc

Sequential/Synchronic- Sense of time (Linear and limited or cyclical and expansive). Sequential cultures see time as linear- productivity and the future are important; Synchronic culture view time as flexible and forgiving

Internal/External- Individual control over one's destiny. Internal culture allows individual to chart their own path; in external cultures, the individual play a part in their own fate or path..individuals can adapt but not create
3 major types- Civil law, common law, religious law

Civil Law- System based on written codes approved by legislative bodies. Most prevalent form of law in world

Common Law- Based on legal precedent. Each case is considered in terms of how it relates to judicial decisions that have already been made. Common law evolves over time. not always considered binding. Common law is created by judges

Religious Law- Based on religious beliefs and conventions- a mixture of written codes and interpretations by religious scholars

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Rule of law- No individual is beyond the law

Due process- laws are enforced only through accepted, procedures, avoiding unfair action

Jurisdiction- Right of a legal body to exert authority over a given geographical territory, subject matter, person, institution

Conflict of laws- occurs when 2 or more jurisdictions with ties to a lawsuit differ

Forum or jurisdiction shopping- plaintiffs seek to bring their suit in a jurisdiction more likely to be sympathetic to their claims

National- Laws enacted by highest/federal legislative bodies of a country, intended to apply across the entire nation

Subnational- Municipalities, states, provinces, or regions within a nation

Extraterritorial- Laws that extend the power of a country's laws over its citizens that country's sovereign national boundaries

Regional/Supranational- Binding agreements among nations of a region. Regional or supranational rules may supersede conflicting national laws

International- Involves both relationships btw nations and the treatment of individuals within national boundaries
Pie Chart- Depicts as portions or slices of a circle that constituents that comprise 100% of a data group. Presents a high level impression of the data distribution as a percentage of a whole (Ex used to describe age breakdown of workforce)

Histogram- Depicts the sorting of data into groups arranged in the shape of a statistical distribution, showing a central tendency and dispersion around that tendency. Appears as columns of varying heights/lengths. Can be designed to show comparisons over time (Ex Used to analyze recruiting methods in terms of ee performance ratings)

Trend Diagram- Plots data points on 2 axes. Horizontal axis usually represents time, and vertical usually volume. Can be used to test for presence of cycles/developing trends (Ex Analyze workforce demand to identify overall trends in demand as well as high and low points in year)

Pareto Chart- Applies pareto principle- that 80% of effects from from 20% of causes- in the form of a histogram. Categories of data are ranked, usually from left to right along x axis (20% of factors are creating 80% of problems). Distinguishes btw vital few categories that contribute most of the issues and the trivial many categories of infrequent occurrence. (Ex Using pareto to analyze and illustrate causes of voluntary and involuntary ee separation from org)

Scatter Diagram- Plots data points against 2 variables that form the chart's x and y axes. The pattern formed by plotted data describes correlation btw the 2 variables (Tightness of clustering = probable strength of correlation; line rising from lower left to upper right quadrant = positive correlation; line falling from upper left to lower right= negative correlation). Can be used to test possible casual relationships (Ex map the correlation of workplace accidents with factors, such as training)