Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Unit 3 lecture 3
Terms in this set (11)
A) What is the basal ganglia?
B) What are the functions?
A) group of cell bodies below cortex; interconnected with the cortex, thalamus, and brainstem
B) motor control (how large the signal will be expressed). cognition, emotions and learning
A) What is the motor loop?
B) What are the pathways?
A) regulation of upper motor neurons; necessary for normal initiation
-also: executive, limbic, and oculomotor loop
B) direct pathway (overall excitatory) and indirect pathway (overall inhibitory)
What role does dopamine play in the motor loop?
dopamine is a neurotransmitter that creates different signals inside a cell. so dopamine can affect each pathway differently.
-activates direct pathway but will inhibit indirect pathway; key role in the basal ganglia motor loop/circuit and the inhibitory and excitatory pathways. (it is also a key neurotransmitter in the arousal and reward systems).
What is hypokinetic?
decreased movement from problems with direct excitatory pathway.
What is hyperkinetic?
increased movement from problems with indirect inhibitory system.
A) What is Parkinson's Disease?
B) What can be a cause of this disease?
A) hypokinetic disease characterized by slowing or loss of movement (akinesia), muscle rigidity, and a "pill-rolling" tremor. even thinking is slowed down.
B) loss of dopamine neurons in basal ganglia; causes decrease in activity in the basal ganglia's excititory 'direct' pathway
What are some treatments of Parkinson's disease?
ultimately the goal is to return dopamine to key synapses
A) medication: affects whole brain (l-dopa)
B) fetal neural tissue graft: invasive
C) deep brain stimulation: stimulation of one basal ganglion side affects contralateral (opposite) side of body, (invasive)
A) What is Huntington's chorea?
B) What can cause it?
A) genetic neurological hyperkinetic disorder. causes uncoordinated, jerky body movements
B) mutation causes proteins to build ip and ultimately kill cortical neurons (cortical atrophy), especially in inhibitory (indirect)pathway of the basal ganglia
What are some treatments of Huntington's Chorea?
genetic testing to see if they have it; medications for symptoms; nutrition management; physical therapy (?)
A) What is hemiballismus?
B) What can cause it?
A) a rare hyperkinetic disorder characterized by involuntary flinging motions of the extremities that increase with increased activity (the more the person moves), due to loss of the inhibitory pathway of the motor loop (symptoms stop/ decrease during sleep)
B) damage to many of the basal ganglia nuclei, esp. subthalamic nucleus = loss of inhibitory pathway
What are some treatments of hemiballismus?
A) deep brain stimulation
B) surgery to remove part of the basal ganglia
Sets found in the same folder
Unit 3 Lecture 1
Unit 3 Lecture 2
Unit 4 Lecture 1
Other sets by this creator
Unit 2 Lecture 3
Unit 2 Lecture 2
Unit 2 Lecture 1
Unit 1 Lecture 4