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Cognition Final 8-13
Terms in this set (49)
The term metacognition is used to refer in a general way to a person's
knowledge and control of his or her cognitive process
In one recent study (Dunning and his coauthors, 2003), students took a sophomore-level psychology test, and then they estimated the score that they thought they had obtained. The results showed that:
students with above-average scores estimated their scores fairly accurately, but students with below-average scores were overconfident in estimating how well they had done
The tip-of-the tongue phenomenon is just an illusion. Indeed, rigorous studies proved that people have no clue of what is "on the tip of their tongue".
In their research on how students manage their study time, Son and Metcalfe (2000) found that when the assigned reading material is difficult and the time available is short students focus more on the hard-to-remember information.
If participants in a memory study are not able to recall a word or answer, researchers may ask them to rate how likely they are to recognize the correct answer if given some clues or options (for example in a multiple-choice format). This is known as
Consider the following task. Subjects are given a list of foreign words to memorize; then they are asked to estimate what their memory performance will be like, at a test to be taken later on. Which of the following conditions might lead them to be overconfident and overestimate their success at the later test?
When they make the estimate right away, with the words in sight
Which of the following is NOT a method to assess metacomprehension?
Asking students to estimate their overall score after taking a closed-book test on the material.
Which of the following teaching method does NOT involve metacognition:
-teaching active reading strategies, for example with a worksheet or study guide
-warning students about textbook features that might induce an illusory sense of knowing (for example, the bold words or definition boxes in the margins, that create a false sense that the material is easy).
all of the above are metacognitive teaching methods because they generate self-reflection in the learners, making them aware of if/how they know what they know.
The basic linguistic unit that conveys meaning is the:
All humans have an innate understanding of the abstract principles of language.
4 or 5 months.
An affirmatively worded sentence in the active voice.
May help young language learners understand the meaning and structure of language.
may be nearly as confident in misinformation-based memories as in genuinely correct memories.
PET, fMRI, ERP, and other neuroimaging techniques
The basic units of written language, for example a letter or a punctuation sign, are called:
The basic units of sounds in a language are called:
The system of rules that allows the combination of words to form correct sentences in a given language is referred to as ________________________.
Social aspects of language use, for example, how to take turns, how to talk appropriately to family members, teachers or strangers are referred to as __________________
In the pre-linguistic stage, babies produce consonant-vowel combinations, such as "bababa" or "lalala". Such vocalizations are referred to as ___________________ .
The long-term memory system responsible for remembering facts and knowledge about the world is called __________________ memory.
Recent research on bilingualism reveals that:
bilinguals often display better metalinguistic skills.
The critical period hypothesis asserts that a person's ability to acquire a second language is based on a biologically based "deadline." Recent research related to this hypothesis:
Does not support it
Refer to the study by Flege et al (1999) on the acquisition of English by Korean arrived in the US at different ages. Look at the graph on page 361. On average, the accent of Native English speakers was rated at the highest level, between 8 and 9 points.
Refer to the study by Flege et al (1999) on the acquisition of English by Korean arrived in the US at different ages. Look at the graph on page 361. For Koreans, the age of acquisition of a second language (a.k.a., age of arrival in the US) affects nothing that relates to the production of speech.
Refer to the study by Flege et al (1999) on the acquisition of English by Korean arrived in the US at different ages. Look at the graph on page 361. The age of arrival in the US affects the speaker's accent and pronunciation in the second language.
Refer to the study by Flege et al. (1999). Based on the findings described in the text, the age of acquisition of a second language does not affect the extent of the vocabulary / grammar learned in the second language. However, age of acquisition influences the amount of formal schooling received in the US. Hence, Koreans who moved to the US at an older age seemed to have more trouble with grammar and vocabulary because of lack of education, not due to a "missed biological deadline".
Simultaneous interpreters (often misnamed simultaneous translators) usually display great working memory capacity
Bilingual children tend to score higher at tests of executive function, when compared to monolingual children of same age, intelligence and socio-economic status.
A child who uses the same word to refer to a blanket, a diaper, a diaper pin, and a vitamin pill is displaying a phenomenon known as:
Dyslexia is a reading disability of neurobiological origin.
When readers use the direct-access route to recognizing written words,
They recognize a word from the visual stimulus without having to translate first into sound
The indirect-access route in reading emphasizes that
readers translate a printed word into sound before they can locate information about its meaning.
Suppose you visit a first grade classroom where the teacher has implemented the whole-language approach. You are most likely to see
children being told to guess a word's meaning from the sentence context.
A second-grader is enrolled in a school that emphasizes the phonics approach. Which of the following strategies would this child's teacher be most likely to employ in order to emphasize this approach?
encouraging the children to try to pronounce each part of a word
In one method to improve reading comprehension, students are explained how a chosen word contributes to meaning in a passage or sentence; they are taught to generate and answer questions on the meaning of what they read and to make predictions on what is going to happen in a story. This method is called
According to the article "The Science of Handwriting", using typing is better than handwriting because it supports the acquisitions of reading abilities.
In the psychology of reading, __________________ refers to ability to recognize words, whereas _____________________ refers to the ability to identify connections between ideas.
A method that is guaranteed to produce a solution to a problem (although the process may be long and time consuming) is called:
Research on the framing effect reveals that people:
are influenced by background context, as well as the way in which a question is worded.
Research using the four-card selection task (Wason, 1968) suggests that most people:
try to confirm instead a hypothesis instead of to disprove it.
A problem-solver divided a problem into several sub-problems, and then he tried to reduce the difference between the initial state and the goal state for each of the sub-problems. The strategy he used his called
In one study, people were asked to estimate the length of the Mississippi River after they answered a question: "Is it longer than 500 miles?" or "Is it longer than 5,000 miles?" Estimates were much smaller in the former case than in the latter case.
anchoring and adjustment
Valerie wanted a birdbath for her backyard but did not want the expense of buying one. She looked around the garage, found some old flowerpots, and came up with an idea. She turned the pots upside down and stacked them to form a column. She then placed a wide, shallow planter on top to hold the water. Using objects for alternative functions shows that Valerie has overcome ________________________________.
When people use the _____________________________ heuristic, they estimate the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how fast and easily they can come up with examples or evidence
When people use the ______________________________ heuristic, they estimate the likelihood of a certain occurrence based on stereotypical and salient information, rather than thinking in terms of statistics and probability.
Jin is interested in politics and world affairs. She has a tendency to seek out and pay attention only to information that supports her own ideas while ignoring or discounting evidence that challenges them. What type of bias does she suffer from?
According to the ___________________ bias, people that already know the outcome of an event, unreasonably believe they that they could predicted what happened (This is also called the "I knew it all along" bias).
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