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a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas


the process used to accomplish organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling people and other organizational resources

Performance gap

A disparity between existing and desired performance levels


Individuals who raise ethical concerns or issues to others inside or outside the organization.


A judgment or opinion formed without due examination of the facts.


the force that moves people to act. motivation may be either instinctive (drives) or learned.


entrepreneurship within an organization, allowing employees flexibility and authority in pursuing and developing new ideas

Glass ceiling effects

invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing in the workplace


The process managers use to transfer authority and responsibility to positions below them in the hierarchy

Active listening

empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies

Decision making process

begining with identificatuin of a problem and ends with evalution of implemented solutions
steps in dicision making
1.identify and define the problem
2. generate and evaluate possible solutions
3.choose a solution
4. implement the solution
5. evaluate results


a standing plan that communicates broad guidelines for decisions and action

Code of ethics

Principles of conduct within an organization that guide decision making and behavior.


The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.


unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice

Personal wellness

the pursuit of one's full potential through a personal health promo program

4 functions of management

planning, organizing, leading, controlling

body language

nonverbal communication through gestures, facial expressions, behaviors, and posture

Product life cycle

Four stages that product goes through over its life: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline.


the combination of two or more commercial companies


sole proprietors, partnerships, and corporations


how one sees things


The receiver's response to a message


a situation that suddenly becomes very dangerous or difficult

Strategic leadership

inspires people to continuously change, refine, and improve strategies and their implementation.

social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

group think

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives


a person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business


determines to what extent the business is accomplishing the goals it set out to reach in the planning stage


management process of determining how best to arrange an organization's resources and activities into a coherent structure


general partnership
limited partnership
limited liability

MNC Multinational corporations

a corporation that operates on a worldwide scale, without significant ties to any one nation or region

Product life cycle

Introduction, Growth, Maturity, Decline

Equity finance

the sale of stock to raise money


money owed by one personor compant to somone else


is a disagreement over issues of substance and or an emotional antagonism
conflict resolution

types of leadership

Autocratic, Democratic, Laissez-Faire

stages of team development*****

a synthesis of research on small groups suggest that here are five distinct phases in the life cycle of any team;
1 forming- a stage of initial orientation and interpersonal testing
2. Storming- a stage of conflict over tasks and working as a team
3. Normong- a stage of consolidation around task and operation
4. Performing- a stage of teamwork and focused task

5. Adjourning- a stage of task completion and disengagement

leadership styles



The taking over the control of one company by another.

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