-The initiation ritual, ranging from social deviance, public embarrassment, physical challenges, or pain endurance, affirms the social hierarchy, values, and goals of a particular group.
-Maltreatment effects happen when hazing elicits social dependency that promotes allegiance to the group.
-The Stockholm syndrome occurs when hostages develop affection for their captors:
1973 Stockholm, Sweden bank robbery
1974 Patty Hearst kidnapping
-Abusive relationships can involve a cycle of abuse: tension, violence, reconciliation, attention, and apologies; the victims are reinforced by the final stages and believe the abuser has their best interests at heart.
-Social loafing occurs when people working in a group reduce their individual level of effort; free riders are people who gain more benefits from the group than they contribute to the group.
-People do not tend to loaf when the task is difficult, when individual contributions are identified, when the work is perceived as valuable, and when they work with people they know.
-Loafing is less likely for people high in conscientiousness, which is the striving for achievement, attention to detail, and responsibility, and high agreeableness, which involves flexibility, cooperation, and pleasing others.
People who endorse a Protestant work ethic that values discipline, honoring commitments, and doing a good job are less likely to loaf.
-Social loafing is a big contributor to process loss, which is a reduction in effort that comes from a lack of motivation, whereas coordination loss occurs when lack of cooperation and communication weakens effectiveness.
-Social loafing increases when there is a diffusion of responsibility, when each individual feels less responsible for the outcome when they think "I don't need to take care of it . . . someone else will."
•Less Evaluation Apprehension: We need to feel like our individual performance is being monitored or we are not put into an arousal state