71 terms


Which statement correctly characterizes bound ribosomes?
1) Bound ribosomes are enclosed in their own membrane.
2) Bound and free ribosomes are structurally different.
3) Bound ribosomes generally synthesize membrane proteins and secretory proteins.
4) The most common location for bound ribosomes is the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.
5) All of the above.
Which structure is not part of the endomembrane system?
1) nuclear envelope
2) chloroplast
3) Golgi apparatus
4) plasma membrane
5) ER
Cells of the pancreas will incorporate radioactively labeled amino acids into proteins. This "tagging" of newly synthesized proteins enables a researcher to track their location. In this case, we are tracking an enzyme secreted by pancreatic cells. What is its most likely pathway?
1) ER→Golgi→nucleus
2) Golgi→ER→lysosome
3) nucleus→ER→Golgi
4) ER→Golgi→vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
5) ER→lysosomes→vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?
1) chloroplast
2) wall made of cellulose
3) central vacuole
4) mitochondrion
5) centriole
Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
1) mitochondrion
2) ribosome
3) nuclear envelope
4) chloroplast
5) ER
Which cell would be best for studying lysosomes?
1) muscle cell
2) nerve cell
3) phagocytic white blood cell
4) leaf cell of a plant
5) bacterial cell
Which structure-function pair is mismatched?
1) nucleolus; production of ribosomal subunits
2) lysosome; intracellular digestion
3) ribosome; protein synthesis
4) Golgi; protein trafficking
5) microtubule; muscle contraction
Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide would be found within the
1) mitochondria.
2) ribosomes.
3) peroxisomes.
4) lysosomes.
5) endoplasmic reticulum.
1 meter = _____ centimeters.
1) 100
2) 1,000,000,000
3) 1,000
4) 1,000,000,000,000
5) 1,000,000
_____ are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface.
1) Cell walls
2) Flagella
3) Ribosomes
4) Mitochondria
5) Pili
What is the function of a bacterium's capsule?
1) protection
2) adhesion
3) protein synthesis
4) DNA storage
5) propulsion
In eukaryotic cells the first step in protein synthesis is the _____.
1) translation of an RNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acids
2) linking of nucleotides to form a polypeptide
3) translation of a DNA nucleotide sequence into a sequence of amino acids
4) transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA
5) removal of introns from RNA and the stitching together of exons
Which organelle plays a role in intracellular digestion?
1) lysosome
2) ribosome
3) chloroplast
4) Golgi apparatus
5) plasmodesma
The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____.
1) microtubules
2) intermediate filaments
3) microfilaments
4) pili
5) tonofilaments
Which of these cell junctions form a barrier to the passage of materials?
1) tight junctions
2) gap (communicating) junctions
3) desmosomes (anchoring junctions)
4) keratin fibers
5) plasmodesmata
The primary role of _____ is to bind animal cells together.
1) plasmodesmata
2) gap (communicating) junctions
3) the cytoskeleton
4) desmosomes
5) tight junctions
_____ aid in the coordination of the activities of adjacent animal cells.
1) Gap (communicating) junctions
2) Tight junctions
3) Keratin fibers
4) Plasmodesmata
5) Desmosomes
Ribosomal subunits are manufactured by the _____.
1) lysosome
2) nucleolus
3) peroxisome
4) rough endoplasmic reticulum
5) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
_____ are the sites of protein synthesis.
1) Mitochondria
2) Peroxisomes
3) Golgi apparatuses
4) Microfilaments
5) Ribosomes
Which of these is involved in the manufacture of membrane?
1) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
2) ribosomes
3) Golgi apparatus
4) nucleolus
5) rough endoplasmic reticulum
The _____ is a selective barrier, regulating the passage of material into and out of the cell.
1) lysosome
2) nuclear envelope
3) chloroplast
4) plasma membrane
5) nucleus
Where is calcium stored?
1) mitochondria
2) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
3) centrioles
4) rough endoplasmic reticulum
5) microtubules
Which of these are hollow rods that shape and support the cell?
1) plasma membrane
2) microtubules
3) chloroplasts
4) microfilaments
5) peroxisomes
_____ is/are identical in structure to centrioles.
1) Mitochondria
2) Nuclear envelopes
3) Chromatin
4) Microfilaments
5) Basal bodies
Which of these organelles produces H2O2 as a by-product?
1) mitochondrion
2) nucleus
3) centrioles
4) flagellum
5) peroxisome
The _____ is composed of DNA and protein.
1) mitochondrion
2) flagellum
3) centriole
4) chromatin
5) ribosome
Which of the following is the simplest collection of matter that can live?
1) cell
2) tissue
3) organ
4) molecules
5) none of the above
A researcher wants to film the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Which type of microscope should he choose and why is it the best choice?
1) light microscope, because of its high resolving power
2) transmission electron microscope, because of its high magnifying power
3) scanning electron microscope, because of its ability to visualize the surface of subcellular objects.
4) transmission electron microscope, because of its high resolving power
5) light microscope, because the specimen is alive
Cell fractionation _____.
1) results in the disruption of the cells and their organelles
2) requires the use of a scanning electron microscope
3) uses strong acids to break apart cells
4) is no longer used in modern cell biology
5) none of the above
The average wavelength of visible light is about 550 nanometers (or 0.5 micrometers). Which of the following cellular structures is unlikely to be resolved with a light microscope?
1) the nucleus, which is typically about 5 micrometers in diameter
2) chromosomes in the nucleus during cell division
3) nuclear pore complexes (100 nanometers in diameter) on the nuclear membrane
4) a typical bacterial cell, which is between 0.5 and 2.0 micrometers in diameter
5) a typical eukaryotic cell, which is between 10 and 100 micrometers in diameter
Consider two cells with the same volume but with very different surface areas due to differences in their shapes. The cell with the larger surface area is likely to _____.
1) have a very high metabolic rate
2) be buried deep in the interior of an organism
3) be involved in the rapid uptake of compounds from the cell's environment
4) be a prokaryotic cell
5) be nearly spherical in shape
Which of the following are likely to limit the maximum size of a cell?
1) the time it takes a molecule to diffuse across a cell
2) the cell's surface-to-volume ratio
3) the shape of the cell
4) All of the choices are correct.
5) None of the choices are correct.
Which of the following structures is found in eukaryotic but not prokaryotic cells?
1) cytosol
2) plasma membrane
3) mitochondria
4) ribosomes
5) RNA
A substance moving from outside the cell into the cytoplasm must pass through _____.
1) a microtubule
2) several different organelle membranes
3) a ribosome
4) the nucleus
5) the plasma membrane
In terms of cellular function, what is the most important difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
1) Only eukaryotic cells can synthesize proteins but prokaryotic cells cannot.
2) Only eukaryotic cells have DNA.
3) Compartmentalization of the cytoplasm by membrane-bounded organelles only occurs in eukaryotic cells.
4) Eukaryotic cells have a plasma membrane and prokaryotic cells do not.
5) Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells.
Bacterial cells are prokaryotic; unlike a typical eukaryotic cell they _____.
1) lack chromosomes
2) have a smaller nucleus
3) lack a plasma membrane
4) have no membrane-bounded organelles in their cytoplasm
5) have no ribosomes
Which of the following features do prokaryotes and eukaryotes have in common?
1) mitochondria, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
2) ribosomes, plasma membrane, cytoplasm
3) nucleus, plasma membrane, ribosomes
4) mitochondria, ribosomes, cytoplasm
5) ribosomes, nucleus, plasma membrane
A certain cell has ribosomes and DNA, and is surrounded by a membrane. But there are no mitochondria present. Based on this information, this cell is most likely _____.
1) a cell from a pine tree
2) a grasshopper cell
3) a yeast (fungus) cell
4) a bacterium
5) The description above could fit any of the cells listed in the answers.
What is the functional connection between the nucleolus, nuclear pores, and the nuclear membrane?
1) Subunits of ribosomes are assembled in the nucleolus and pass through the nuclear membrane via the nuclear pores.
2) The nuclear pores are connections between the nuclear membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum that permit ribosomes to assemble on the surface of the ER.
3) The nucleolus contains messenger RNA (mRNA), which crosses the nuclear envelope through the nuclear pores.
4) Endoplasmic reticulum membrane is produced in the nucleolus and leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores.
5) none of the above
If we used a light microscope to examine an active cell, involved in extensive protein production, we would expect that chromosomes would appear as _____.
1) a diffuse mass
2) very thin but dense bands
3) very thick, very light bands
4) very thick, very dense, and very dark bands
5) none of the above
Of the following organelles associated with the endomembrane system, which group is primarily involved in synthesizing molecules needed by the cell?
1) lysosome, vacuole, ribosome
2) ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum
3) vacuole, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum
4) smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, vacuole
5) rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, vacuole
Which one of the following organelles is unlikely to show enhanced abundance in the pancreatic cells that secrete large amounts of digestive enzymes?
1) rough endoplasmic reticulum
2) free cytoplasmic ribosomes
3) Golgi apparatus
4) transport vesicles
5) All of the above will increase in pancreatic cells secreting digestive enzymes.
A plant was grown in a test tube containing radioactive nucleotides, the molecules from which DNA is built. Later examination of dividing cells in the plant showed the majority of the radioactivity to be concentrated in the _____.
1) rough endoplasmic reticulum
2) lysosome
3) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
4) central vacuole
5) nucleus
Which of the following categories best describes the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
1) breakdown of complex foods
2) energy processing
3) manufacturing
4) structural support of cells
5) information storage
You would expect a cell with an extensive Golgi apparatus to _____.
1) make a lot of ATP
2) secrete a lot of protein
3) move rapidly
4) perform photosynthesis
5) store large quantities of ions
A researcher made an interesting observation about a protein made by the rough endoplasmic reticulum and eventually used to build a cell's plasma membrane. The protein in the plasma membrane was actually slightly different from the protein made in the ER. The protein was probably altered in the _____.
1) Golgi apparatus
2) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
3) plasma membrane
4) transport vesicles
5) rough endoplasmic reticulum
Consider a protein that is made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. You observe that when the synthesis of the protein is completed, the protein is located in the ER membrane. Where else in the cell might this protein be found?
1) in the aqueous interior of a lysosome functioning as a digestive enzyme
2) in the cytoplasm, functioning as an enzyme in carbohydrate synthesis
3) embedded in the plasma membrane functioning in the transport of molecules into the cell
4) in the internal space of the Golgi apparatus, being modified before the protein is excreted
5) in a mitochondrion functioning in ATP synthesis
Which of the following sequences represents the order in which a protein made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum might move through the endomembrane system?
1) lysosome; plasma membrane
2) Golgi apparatus; mitochondria
3) Golgi apparatus; vacuole
4) plasma membrane; nuclear envelope
5) nuclear envelope; lysosome
Which of the following is (are) most likely to be involved in the process of producing proteins for a chloroplast or mitochondrion, neither of which is part of the endomembrane system?
1) transport vesicles
2) free cytoplasmic ribosomes
3) the Golgi apparatus
4) rough endoplasmic reticulum
5) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
A protein that ultimately functions in the plasma membrane of a cell is most likely to have been synthesized _____.
1) on ribosomes on the nuclear envelope
2) on free cytoplasmic ribosomes
3) in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
4) in the mitochondria
5) in the plasma membrane
Which one of the following five membranes is most likely to have a lipid composition that is distinct from the other four?
1) endoplasmic reticulum
2) plasma membrane
3) mitochondrial outer membrane
4) lysosome membrane
5) Golgi apparatus
Chloroplasts and mitochondria are thought to be of prokaryotic origin. One piece of evidence that supports this hypothesis is that these organelles contain prokaryotic-like ribosomes. These ribosomes are probably most similar to ribosomes found ______.
1) free in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes
2) on the rough ER
3) in bacterial cells
4) The first two answers are correct.
5) The first three answers are correct.
Which one of the following statements about chloroplasts and mitochondria is true?
1) Mitochondria but not chloroplasts contain a small amount of DNA.
2) Chloroplasts and mitochondria are components of the endomembrane system.
3) Chloroplasts and mitochondria are composed of two separate membranes.
4) Chloroplasts and mitochondria synthesize some of their own proteins.
5) all of the above
Which of the following is a possible reason for grouping the peroxisomes with chloroplasts and mitochondria?
1) They are all involved in ATP synthesis.
2) They all contain two or more membranes.
3) They all contain DNA and make some of their own proteins.
4) They are all part of the plastid family of organelles.
5) None of these organelles are part of the endomembrane system.
Which type of cell is most likely to have the most mitochondria?
1) muscle cells in the legs of a marathon runner
2) photosynthetic cells in the leaves of a tree
3) bacterial cells that are growing on sugars
4) inactive yeast cells that are stored for future use
5) non-dividing cells in the skin on your finger
Which of the following is/are true?
1) Mitochondria are involved in energy metabolism.
2) Mitochondria have more than one membrane.
3) Mitochondria contain DNA and ribosomes.
4) Mitochondria are independent of the endomembrane system.
5) all of the above
The observation that chloroplasts and mitochondria each contain their own DNA and synthesize some of the proteins that function in these organelles suggests that chloroplasts and mitochondria ______.
1) are produced by the nucleus of the cell
2) must divide each time the cell containing them divides
3) are part of the endomembrane system
4) are involved in energy metabolism of the cell
5) contain two or more membranes
Which of the following are possible sites of protein synthesis in a typical eukaryotic cell?
1) the cytoplasm
2) the rough endoplasmic reticulum
3) in mitochondria
4) The first two answers are correct.
5) The first three answers are correct.
Which of the following organelles might be found inside other organelles?
1) the nucleolus
2) mitochondria
3) ribosomes
4) transport vesicles
5) No organelles are found inside of other organelles.
Which of the following cellular processes or characteristics is/are related to the cytoskeleton?
1) transmission of information from the cell surface to the interior of the cell
2) movement of the chromosomes during cell division
3) movement of cilia or flagella
4) contraction of muscle cells
5) all of the above
Which of following structures are found in plant cells and animal cells?
1) cell walls
2) chloroplasts
3) central vacuoles
4) a cytoskeleton
5) none of the above
Which statement about the cytoskeleton is true?
1) Intermediate filaments are hollow tubes of protein that provide structural support.
2) Microtubules are chains of proteins that resist stretching.
3) Microfilaments are more permanent structures in cells compared to intermediate filaments and microtubules.
4) Components of the cytoskeleton are often involved with movement of organelles within the cytoplasm.
5) Plant cells lack a cytoskeleton because they have a rigid cell wall.
Cilia and flagella move due to the interaction of the cytoskeleton with which of the following?
1) actin
2) pseudopodia
3) mitochondria
4) tubulin
5) motor proteins
Where would you expect to find proteins involved with movement of structures within a cell?
1) muscles
2) cytoskeleton
3) transport vesicles moving from the ER to the Golgi
4) plasma membrane
5) ribosomes
Basal bodies are most closely associated with which one of the following cell components?
1) nucleus
2) mitochondria
3) cilia
4) the central vacuole
5) Golgi apparatus
Which of the following organelles lack membranes as part of their structure?
1) vacuoles
2) mitochondria
3) microfilaments
4) nucleus
5) All of the choices are surrounded by membranes.
Dye injected into a plant cell might be able to enter an adjacent cell through _____.
1) a tight junction
2) a microtubule
3) a cell wall
4) plasmodesmata
5) a gap junction
Which of the following correctly compares the extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal cells to cell walls of plant cells?
1) Both the ECM and the plant cell wall are composed of varying mixtures of proteins and carbohydrates.
2) The structures that are external to the plasma membrane are essentially independent of the plasma membrane in both groups.
3) The ECM and plant cell walls completely cover the plasma membrane of their respective cells.
4) Both the ECM and plant cell walls provide rigid structures that determine the shape of their respective cells.
5) Cell walls and ECMs provide for tight contact between adjacent cells.
Your intestine is lined with individual cells. No fluids leak between these cells from the gut into your body. Why?
1) The intestinal cells are fused together into one giant cell.
2) The intestinal cells are bound together by plasmodesmata.
3) The intestinal cells are bound together by tight junctions.
4) The intestinal cells are bound together by gap junctions.
5) The intestinal cells are bound together by the extracellular matrix.
Which of the following statements correctly describes a common characteristic of a plant cell wall and an animal cell extracellular matrix?
1) Both are permeable to water and small solutes.
2) Both are synthesized in the ER and Golgi apparatus.
3) Both are composed primarily of carbohydrates.
4) The first two answers are correct.
5) The first three answers are correct.
The walls of plant cells are largely composed of polysaccharides and proteins that are synthesized ____.
1) externally to the plasma membrane
2) in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
3) in the Golgi apparatus
4) in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus
5) in the rough endoplasmic reticulum