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positive psych FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (49)
what are some of the historical perspectives on wisdom and its importance?
- the ancient Greeks saw wisdom as the ultimate goal in life
- the ancient Hebrews saw wisdom as leading a highly ethereal life
what are some of the key approaches for defining wisdom?
- wisdom is the knowledge of social, interpersonal, and psychosocial experience and it combines 2 forms of knowledge: LOGOS and MYTHOS
- Kramer (2000) found 2 major elements of wisdom are an openness to experience and the ability to reflect and grapple with difficult life issues
- webster measures 5 components of wisdom:
1. Openness to experience
2. Emotional regulation
3. Healthy coping
5. Sense of humor
how is wisdom related to aspects of well-being?
- wisdom is correlated with life satisfaction, sense of mastery, purpose in life, physical well being
- reflective wisdom helps buffer adverse life experiences
how is wisdom understood within Erikson's developmental stage model?
Erickson sees wisdom as a virtue resulting from successfully aging - Wisdom as a stage of life
and the virtue results from successfully resolving the integrity versus despair psychological stage (regret vs. meaning, acceptance of death)
how is wisdom understood from the perspective of post-format cognitive development?
It goes beyond Piaget's last stage of cognitive development which is formal cognitive development. Views wisdom as a highly complex problem-solving style.
Emergent Wisdom (Basset): wisdom as post-formal cognitive development. Involves 4 major components:
how is wisdom understood as a form of excellence?
Wisdom as a specific type of excellence in the performance of one's life
Baltes and Staudinger: wisdom as excellence in performance, wisdom is multifaceted, it involves interdependence between person and environment. It is easy to recognize but hard to achieve - too complex to quantify through existing approaches
what are the 4 key predictors of wisdom?
1. intelligence: high scores of fluid and crystallized intelligence account for wisdom
2. Personality dispositions: openness to experience and life experiences
3. cognitive styles: 15% of wisdom, also creativity and thinking
4. Life experience
what is the Balance Theory of Wisdom?
Robert Stenberg, tacit knowledge (found in personal experience) and personal values are used to find solutions to help with the greater good of society - the common good is achieved through balancing personal, interpersonal, and social interests to find the right solutions
why is wisdom often considered the "master" virtue?
- Aristotle: wisdom enables discernment of the importance of other virtues and how they should be balanced
- strengthening virtues = developing practical wisdom
- practical wisdom: allows a person to navigate inevitable conflicts and translate character strength into real life scenarios and action
- timing the use of virtues should be sensitive to contextual needs
- Flowers (2005) believed wisdom is a virtuous character type
what are some of the key suggestions for cultivating wisdom?
Reznitskaya and Sternberg (2004):
- practice dialectical and reflective thinking skills
- read the writing of important thinkers
- interact with great works of literature and art
- interact with other forms of media that consider life's complexities
- read and reflect upon the biographies of individuals one considers wise
- volunteer and find role models
what do religion and spirituality have in common? how do they differ?
- both spirituality and religion require one to relate to something greater and also to have a degree of self-transcendence
- religion is the search for the sacred within a traditional context usually done through a formal religious institution
- spirituality is a personal or group search for what is sacred in life
- a difference is that spirituality is more inclusive when searching for the sacred while religion is grounded in specific practices of an institutional form
what does research say about the relationship between religiousness and well-being?
- greater religiousness associated with higher well-being, people who are religious are less likely to have criminal activity, addiction, or other social problems
- religiousness can increase positive emotional states and self virtues
- biggest predictor in relationship and well-being is participation in religious activities like praying or going to church
what are the demographic findings with regard to this relationship (e.g. gender, race/ethnicity, age, etc.)?
- women show higher relationships between well-being and religiousness
- african americans show stronger relationships with well-being and religiousness
- older adults show stronger relationships with well-being and religiousness
what does research say about the relationship between religiousness and physical health?
-People who are more religious are less likely to have illnesses, lower rates of cancer and heart attacks and have a greater tolerance for pain.
- One study found religious people live an average of seven more years than non religious people.
- Physiological factors that account for better health are lower blood pressure, better functioning of the immune system, less stress and worry.
how is prayer related to well-being and to physical health? what are the different types of prayer and forms of praying? how are these different approaches to prayer linked to different aspects of well-being?
prayer and health: Higher frequency of prayer is good for cardiac patients, greater mental health,
Aids in the immune system and healing
the six types of prayer:
1. Adoration- worship of God
2. Thanksgiving- thanking God
3. Petitionary- Divine intervention
4. Confession-Admitting sins to God
5. Obligatory- Ritualistic, fixed times
6. Reception- Openness to guidance
linked to aspects of well-being:
-Formalistic prayer is helpful for those with a strong need for order in their life
-Colloquial prayers of thanksgiving can help those with a preference for emotional
-Three of the prayers; adoration, thanksgiving, and reception help people be more
Optimistic, higher self esteem, and meaning in life.
-Confessional prayer linked to negative well being.
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