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Terms in this set (82)

To measure the opinions of the employee public: random sampling, written survey questionnaire with various aspect of patient care

•To measure the opinions of the patient public: telephone survey
•On a scale ranging from 1 (poor) to 10 (excellent), significantly lower satisfaction of the hospital's performance from the employees (6.6 overall) than the patients (8.5 overall)

After the Campaign (Summative Research)

•After one year, follow-up research was conducted (the same research to compare with the benchmarking data)
•The evaluation process began at the same point as the original research
•The same methodology of random sampling: 300 names were once again randomly selected from the 1,226 employees

Evaluation Findings Four key factors from the original survey had been selected as goals for improvement during the preceding year; these same factors were measured again to determine how much progress had been made1.Quality of care: from 6.6 to 7.02.Patients'understanding of procedures: 5.7 to 6.23.Courtesy & respect shown to patients: 7.4 to 7.84.Patient call lights answered within 5 minutes: 56% to 82%

EVAL INSIGHTS-Noticeable & positive shift in employee perceptions of the hospital's overall performance
•In addition to the survey, focus group revealed considerable improvement in employees' feelings about the quality of care
•Therefore, top management concluded the positive effect of the PR campaign
1. Goal setting and measurement are fundamental.

-Good goals are supported by SMART objectives. The "M" in SMART stands for measurable. Measurable implies quantifiable.

-Who, what, how much, by when

2. Measure communication outcomes.
-Outputs are tasks that you complete, but the outcomes of public relations programs are changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.
•Cognitive: having to do with mental process (thinking, learning, etc.)
•Attitudinal: affect, emotion, favor/disfavor
•Behavioral: observable human action
•Likert-type items-"strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"

Cognitive: understanding an org's position, learning how to do something, comprehending a complex issue

•Attitudinal: advocacy, reputation, trust, commitment, satisfaction, feelings of control mutuality

•Behavioral: purchases, donations, healthy activities, volunteerism, public policy actions, financial investments

3. Measure the effect on organizational performance.-When goals are marketing-based, the metrics should include the traceable steps in the conversion funnel.

•Searching for key terms, Clicking on links, Browsing product offerings, Making purchases
-Programs like Google Analytics and Google Brand Lift can help measure both sales and non-sales-driven organizational performance.
-NGO, charitable organizations, governments, the military

4. Employ both qualitative and quantitative methods
.-Media measurement should account for impressions and quality (e.g., tone)
-Example: Starbucks YouTube video from November 2013 titled Hiring Veterans and Military Spouses

-Quantitative results: The Starbucks channel on YouTube had 257K subscribers and this particular video had been viewed more than 9,000 times.-Qualitative results include the following comments:
•"All lies."
•"Yaright they may hire you but [your] going to make minimum wage and be treated as if you some dumb high school drop out"
•"Pay taxes properly!!"

5. Advertising Value Equivalencies (AVEs) are not the value of communications.
-AVE: A calculation of the value of news or editorial coverage based on the cost of an equivalent amount of advertising space or time
•Do not measure attitudes, knowledge or behavior
•Mere exposure

•6. Measure social media consistently with other media channels.
-Digital media and media monitoring services present new opportunities to use data to improve the evaluation of public relations programs.
-Qualitative and Quantitative
•# of likes or share + tone of the conversation

7. Ensure measurement and evaluation are transparent, consistent, and valid.-Integrity, honesty, and openness and ethical practice-Transparency in research means that researchers are open and not secretive about their methods .
Early/potential: when a few people begin to become aware of possible problems

2.Emerging: when more people begin to notice and express concern

3.Current/crisis: when the negative impact on an organization becomes public and pressure on the organization builds

4.Dormant: when the organization has no choice but to accept the long-term consequences

Case StudyThe Issue Life Cycle of Volkswagen's Dieselgate
•Early/Potential-Issues are identified by experts or specialists
-In 2012, Thiruvengadamat West Virginia University received grant from International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT)
-Tested "Clean Diesel" Volkswagen Jetta and Passat-Found higher levels of pollutants

-In May 2014, ICCT alerted the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources board about the findings
-The emission problem started since 2005

-A time when industry insiders, specialist media, professional interest groups, activist organizations begin to notice and to voice concerns
-Media attention may be sporadic
•Monitoring specialty media (e.g., blogs and trade publications) gives chance to intervene
-Volkswagen denied the issue and explained reasons
•There was very little media attention since the initial findings

-Issues become enduring and pervasive-Increased pressure
-Organization becomes mainly reactive-September 2015, EPA publicly accused VW of using defeat devices hidden in its diesel cars that manipulated the emissions tests
-Michael Horn, Volkswagen Group of America's chief executive, apologized when launching 2016 Passat

•11 million of its diesel cars had been rigged to fool emissions tests since 2005
•Volkswagen chief executive Martin Winterkorn resigned on September 23, 2015
•By September 25, 2015, the stock had dropped more than 50% below its 52 week high in March 2015
•Value of used VW cars fell more than 13%•October 2015, more than 350 U.S. lawsuits against Volkswagen had been filed
•$7.3 billion to prepare for fixing the situation•Affected other countries, Germany, France, Australia, India, China, the EU, South Korea and Sweden•December 2015, the Chairman of Volkswagen said that an organizational climate of poor ethical standards was partly to blame and "there was a tolerance for breaking the rules."
You'll find as many different areas of specialization in public relations as there are different missions of organizations.

The goals of healthcare are as universal as the human race.•Family planning to end-of-life hospice care•Governments •NGOs•Hospitals (for-profit and nonprofit) •Private physicians•Pharmaceutical companies•Educational and research institutions•Medical device manufacturers

•Sports and entertainment
This is one of the hardest areas to break into right after college because so many people would love to work for the athletes and celebrities they already enjoy following. •Sports information directors: documenting and updating information often real-time for the media; duties also include crisis management, marketing and branding, and community relations•Keeps up with the 24/7 ups and downs

•Political and public affairs
Political campaigning includes strategy from research to achieve measurable outcomes •Some jobs last only as long asa candidate is running for office•Agencies specialized in political communication

Financial and entrepreneurial:
Deals with investor relations•Employers include publicly held companies like Bank of China, Berkshire Hathaway and General Electric, Samsung Electronics and Apple, in addition to small startup businesses raising capital for entrepreneurial endeavors

One the most visible segments of public relations, because it is so closely tied with the advertising and marketing of brands we all know well and products we consume every day. •The growth of digital media blurred the lines between PR, Ad, and Marketing

Healthcare, sports, entertainment, political, financial, and consumer product organizations and publics are spread all over the world. Even PR agencies went global.•The relationships between them cross national borders more than ever before. •Many organizations distinctly identify themselves as global or international and specifically seek employees with a strong desire to work and communicate across countries and cultures.