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Final Labs (Test 4)
Terms in this set (69)
At birth, the foal has little to no immunity therefore the colostrum needs to contain
high quality immunoglobulins (IgG)
Maximal uptake of the IgG occurs within the first _____ hours after birth and closes by _____ hours after birth
Why should maximal uptake occur within the first 8 hours?
the gut is more porous and able to allow larger molecules to pass through
What is pinocytosis?
begins by 24 hours which hastens the gut closure, preventing the IgG from being digested
The mare produces _____-_____ mL of colostrum
2,000 - 3,000 mL
the mare's colostral production peaks at _____ hours post-foaling & then decreases significantly until it stops at ___ hours
Approximately ___-____ L of colostrum is needed from each mar in order for the foal to receive adequate passive transfer
What are different ways we can test colostrum?
refractometer, colostrometer, bulb hydrometer
Good quality colostrum can be collected and frozen for other foals and remain stable for up to ___ months when frozen, and canlast even longer when frozen at -4°C.
When colostrum is being de-thawed, why do we not microwave?
destroys the antibodies
How do we test a foal's IgG? What is the goal number?
blood tests before the 24 hours is up
> 800 mg/dL
What are the two ways we administer banked colostrum to a foal and in what situation would we use either option?
bottle - if strong suckle reflex
NG tube - no suckle reflex
If foals older than 24 hours with failure of passive transfer, what must they receive? Why?
IV plasma transfusion
- GI tract can no longer absorb antibodies from colostrum
What is septicemia?
foal sepses where there is failure fo passive transfer resulting in a lower immune response
- leading cause of neonatal death
What should be considered when completing early foal handling?
foals have a short attention span and therefore should not be pushed past their breaking point
what is the cradle method?
the way to hold a foal
what is the baby suitcase method?
how we move foals
When should foal training begin?
after nursing and bonding with mare to insure that the foal ingests colostrum as quickly as possible
When is the halter introduced?
after the baby suitcase method
What is important with halter training?
the foal should be accustomed to wearing a halter before any pressure is ever placed on the halter
The halter should be put on and off quietly at least ____ time before finally being latched
When handling a mare's udder, where should you stand? Why?
near her shoulder with your free hand ether point of shoulder or crest
- when the udder becomes full is tender
What are the four physical characteristics we look at when predicting parturition?
udder development, vulva relaxation, ligament relaxation, mammary secretions
When does filling of the udders and teats begin? scale?
udders: 2-6 weeks prior to parturition
teats: last week of parturition
dried colostrum on teat ends that are presents last few days before parturition
present in last 12-24 hours before parturition
present last hours prior to birth due to oxytocin
What is vulva relaxation and when does it occur occur? scale?
relaxation and elongation becomes more noticeable in final days leading up to parturition (0-3)
What is ligament relaxation and when does it occur? scale:?
the ligament around the tailed begin to soften in the final week of pregnancy (0-3)
- visible along sides of the tail head or see how far you can lift the tail before resistance is felt
What are the mammary secretions & when do changes occur? scale?
secretions evaluated for color & consistency
- as parturition news, the colors changes from clear yellow to yellow white (0-4) and the consistency changes from watery to thick and sticky
What is a non-physical observation for predicting parturition?
milk calcium testing
How does milk calcium levels change when approaching parturition?
Na + K levees chain in finals weeks or day & Ca rises 24-72 hours prior to partition (best indicator)
How do we test milk calcium?
either with strips to titrations (turns blue when closer to parturition)
What is in the portable foaling kit at mu equine facility? (12)
halter/lead rope, palpation sleeve, stethoscope, pen/records, scalpel blade, clean towels, tail wrap, flashlight, lubricant, string, umbilical dip, watch
What is the APGAR scale?
monitoring neonatal responsiveness after the umbilical chord as rupture. This is done at 1 and 4 minutes on a scale of 0-8
How should a foal's respiratory system sound?
What is eponychia?
collagenous pads on the bottom of the foal's sole that help cushion the mare's reproductive tract during delivery & fall off once the foal starts to walk
When should sternal recumbency occur?
When should suckle reflex occur?
When should the foal stand?
within 1 hour
When should the foal nurse?
within 2 hours
When should the foal urinate?
within the first 12 hours
When will the foal start to pass meconium? What helps this?
begins within 3 hours
- an enema is administered after nursing
What should be done before nursing?
cleanse the mare's udder
What are signs with the mare that you should call a vet? (5)
- mare does not want the foal to nurse off one or both sides of her udder
- udder is dripping milk or running of legs
- heat in hooves
- red discharge from vulva
- colic symptoms
Example of problems with the foal
sleeping standing up (joint pain)
lying on back (colic)
What is an umbilical clamp used for?
Use this if the umbilicus has not stopped bleeding you would use this and a hemostat to stop that
What is oxytocin used for?
This is administered if the mare has not delivered her placenta in the correct amount of time. Prevents the mare from getting sick.
What is vet wrap used for?
Used to wrap the mare's tail to prevent it from getting in the way and making the foaling more hygienic.
What are the three stages of parturition?
stage 1 (initial uterine contractions)
stage 2 (delivery of foal)
stage 3 (placental deliverance)
How long should stage 1 (initial uterine contractions) last?
30 minutes - 6 hours
How can we tell the difference between general uterine contractions & stage 1 uterine contractions?
stage 1 uterine contractions initiate cervix dilation
What is righting reflex? What stage does this occur in?
process where the foal gets oriented and ready for birth
- stage 1
What happens when the water breaks? What stage?
alantochorion ruptures and the fluid between eh allantois and the amnionic sac leaks out
- stage 1
What problem can occur in stage 1 of parturition?
red bag delivery
What is a red bag delivery? How do we fix this?
allantochorion does not rupture so the fetus is getting decreased oxygen transfer
- scalpel to cut through the placenta and get the foal out
What two factors predispose mares for red bag delivery?
fescue & placentitis (placental thickening)
How long should stage 2 last (delivery of the foal?
less that 30 minutes
What happens during stage 2?
the amnion appears through the vulva lips
What is the diving position? What stage?
foal has one foot out, then the nose, then the last foot is tucked
- allows for the foal to not be as broad when coming out & prevents dystocia
- stage 2
What is the Ferguson reflex? What stage?
when the foal enters the cervix, prostaglandins and oxytocin stimulate uterine contraction
- stage 2
What are problems that can occur in stage 2 (foal delivery)?
every 10 minutes over the 30 minute goal, decreases chances of foal surviving
What is the goal timing with foals?
deliver 30 minutes after the water breaks
What happens if the foal is NOT in the correct positioning? How can we tell:?
If you do not feel this diving position, you want to decrease contractions to prevent the foal from going further into the birth canal and call the veterinarian.
- You can check for position as soon as the water breaks. You do this by putting on a palpation glove and inserting your hand through the vagina to check for positioning.
In what % of parturitions, do foals not meet the 30 minute goal?
How long should stage 3 (placental deliverance) be?
less than 3 hours
- if longer = toxins
What are necessary for the delivery of placental deliverance?
What do we avoid giving postpartum medication until after deliverance of fetal membranes?
will decrease uterine contractions
What do we want the placenta to look like?
complete & free of abnormalities
- incomplete = endotoxemia
- abnormalities = unhealthy foal
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