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Exam 5 Reveiw
Terms in this set (58)
nerve cell that transmits nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glandular epithelial tissues.
neurons that transmits impulses to the spinal cord and brain from any part of the body.
is a three neurons reflex arc nerve cell that conducts impulses from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron.
a neuron with one axon and one dendrite attached to its soma
star-shaped neuroglial cell.
type of small neuroglial cell of nerve tissue that serves an immune system function by becoming an active phagocyte when stimulated.
cells that line the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.
small astrocyte with few cell processes; helps to form myelin sheaths around axons within the central nervous system.
motor neurons that control voluntary actions of skeletal muscles.
division of the nervous system that monitors and regulates subconscious functions
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord, body's decision maker
sensory division of the nervous system.
nerve with axons of both sensory and motor neurons.
any of the large nucleated cells that form myelin around the axons of neurons; also called neurolemmocyte.
dense white lateral and posterior portions of the outer fibrous layer of the eyeball.
middle layer of the eyeball; contains a dark pigment that prevents the scattering of incoming light rays.
innermost layer of the eyeball; contains rods and cones and continues posteriorly with the optic nerve.
transparent, anterior portion of the fibrous layer of the eye.
What are the functions of the CNS?
Sensory nerves bring info to CNS. Then CNS processes info & makes decisions
What make up grey and white matter?
Bundles of myelinated fibers make up the white matter or substance. Cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers make up the gray matter or gray substance.
What is the correct pathway for impulse conduction along a neuron?
Dendrite, axon, and receptor Dendrite, cell body, and axon Axon, cell body, and dendrite receptor, axon and cell body.
Regeneration of NN fibers can occur when?
If the damage is not extensive, the cell body and neurilemma are intact and scarring has not occurred; nerve fibers can be repaired.
What does the autonomic NS stimulate?
It stimulates the sympathetic division which is made up of pathways that exit the middle portions of the spinal cord, is involved in preparing the body too deal with immediate threats to the internal environment, which is the "fight or flight" response. Also it stimulates the parasympathetic division, the pathways exit at the brain or lower portion of the spinal cord and coordinate the body's normal resting activities, which stimulates the "rest and repair" division.
What part of the NS is the "fight or flight" response?
How fast can our nn conduct an impulse?
Nerve impulses such as pain gignals travel slower at 0.61/s, some signals such as those for muscle position travel speeds up to 115/s.
What makes up a synapse?
Composed of three main parts, the presynaptic ending that contains neurotransmitters, the synaptic cleft between the two nerve cells, the postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites.
Where would you find a synaptic knob?
It is a tiny bulge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron axon.
What happens when an impulse reaches a synapse?
Impulse reaches axonic end of the synapse - calcium ions flow in axonic terminal - secretory vescicles release neurotransmitter - dendritic end across synapse become depolarized - new impulse generated.
What channels are open for an impulse to be inhibitory?
Chloride channels, when the channels open, negative ions flow in causing a local hyperpolarization and making an action potential less likely.
What properties allow for the fastest and slowest nn conduction?
Biggest Axon has the fastest conduction, and the smallest axon has the slowest nerve conduction. 130m/s it the fastest a nerve conduction can occur.
When will no impulses be sent through a neuron?
No impulse can be sent through a neuron during the relative refractory period, when the charge of the neuron is -70, during the absolute refractory period. When the stimulus is too strong.
What are the layers of meninges and their order.
Meninges around the brain has three layer. 1. The dura mater. 2. The arachnoid mater 3. The pia mater. The dura mater has two layers called periosteal and meningeal. There is a space between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater called subdural space.
How many ventricles are there in the brain?
There are 4, two lateral ventricles, third ventricle
How is cerebrospinal fluid formed?
Formed primarily in the ventricles of the brains, the cerebrospinal fluid supports the brain and provides lubrication between surrounding bones and the brain and spinal cord.
What part of the brain directly effects the pituitary gland?
The pituitary gland is connected directly to the part of the brain called hypothalamus.
What hormones are released by the hypothalamus?
Thyrotropin, Gonadotropin, Growth hormone, Corticotropin, Somatostatin, Dopamine.
What are the different types of brain waves and what they are associated with.
Alpha Waves- emitted when we are in a state of physical and mental relaxation. Beta Waves- emitted when we are consciously alert or we feel agitated, tense, and afraid. Theta Waves - offer a state of somnolence with reduced consciousness, light sleep, or extreme relaxation. Delta Waves- emitted during deep sleep and during dreamless sleep when there is unconsciousness. Gamma Waves- is associated with the formation of ideas, language, memory processing and various types of learning.
What part of the cerebrum is associated with emotions?
Responsible for recognition of emotions, memories, and fear, the amygdala is located in the telencephalon.
What does the falx cerebelli separate?
It partially separates the two cerebellar hemispheres
What is the body's biological clock?
A biological clock is your body's internal timing device; it's the master clock that is in charge of your sleep-wake cycle. And because it rules your sleep, which is the backbone of health, your biological clock has a profound impact on your overall wellness.
What are the main divisions of the NS?
The central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system, which in human includes 12 pair of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, autonomic nervous system.
What is the filum terminale?
Is a slender flexible strand that attaches the bottom of the spinal cord to a bone called the coccyx at the lower end of the vertebral column.
Which cranial nn is the vagus?
The vagus nerve is one of the cranial nerve that connect the brain to the body.
Where are the spinal nn plexuses?
On each side of the spinal cord where the dorsal ventral nerve roots join.
What is the cauda equine?
Is a bundle of nerve roots extending (along with the filum terminale) form the conus medullaris (inferior end of the spinal cord).
Tissue damage is perceived by what type of receptor?
Nociceptors perceive pain from Tissue Damage for example a cut or burn.
Which cranial nn is responsible for our sense of smell and what type of receptor is it?
Olfactory nerve or cranial nerve 1. All incoming information is a sensory nerve/receptor.
Name the auditory ossicles
They are called malleus, incus, and stapes. Inside of the middle ear are the smallest bones of the body - the auditory ossicles.
Where are the semicircular canals located?
organs that are part of the vestibular system in the inner ear.
In our eyes, how does the # of rods compare to cones and where would you find each?
Rods are found around the boundary of the retina whereas cones are there in the centre of the retina (slide 51 under special senses). There are 120 million rods and 5 million cones. (Rods in the night time, Cones during the daytime)
Where are taste buds located?
It is located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that functions in the perception of taste.
When the lights are the Poterium gland secretes melatonin which make you tired and then when the lights are on it secretes serotonin which makes you more awake.
The one the teacher kept repeating.
What physiological changes do we see with the fight or flight response?
Heart-Increased heart rate Dilation of coronary blood vessels. Lungs-Dilation of bronchi Increased respiration rate. Liver- Increased conversion of glycogen to glucose.
What is the main function of the autonomic NS?
regulates certain body processes, such as blood pressure and the rate of breathing. This system works automatically (autonomously), without a person's conscious effort. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system can affect any body part or process.
How many cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral nn pairs do we have?
There are eight pairs of cervical nerves, twelve pairs of thoracic nerves, five pairs of lumbar nerves, five pairs of sacral nerves, and one pair of coccygeal nerves.
What are the main divisions of the CNS?
the spinal cord, the medulla, the pons, the cerebellum, the midbrain, the diencephalon, and the cerebral hemispheres
What are the characteristics of an action potential?
Sudden, fast, transitory and propagating change of the resting membrane potential
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