106 terms

AP U.S. History Review for Fall Final Exam

What food-producing methods were used by Pre-Colombian Native Americans?
The men spent their time hunting for game while the women grew crops such as corn, beans, and tobacco; some followed buffalo herds
Describe the Puritans. What was their major religious dissent?
Established the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies; intolerant of anyone who questioned their religious teachings-banished; These dissidents founded Rhode Island and Connecticut
What was the Great Awakening of the 1700s? Why did it develop? Who were the two leaders of the movement?
Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield; Invoking the Old Testiment Scriptures, Edwards argued that God was rightfully angry with human sinifulness, each individual who expressed deep penitence could be saved by God's grase, but souls who paid no heed to God's commandments would suffer eternal damnation
What colony was founded by Roger Williams? What was the motivation?
Rhode Island; religious and political motives
What colony was founded by William Penn? What was the motivation?
first turned his attention to New Jersey and became an owner and proprietor of part of the Quaker colony but began a new territory between New York and Maryland after his dad died; wanted Pennsylvania to be profitable for him and his family, Pennsylvania was his holy experiment
What colony was founded by Lord Baltimore? What was the motivation?
George Calvert (aka the first Lord Baltimore) wanted to found a new colony, Maryland but died before he could get the charter; his son, Cecilius Calvert (aka the second Lord Baltimore) recieved the necessary charter that not only gave him Maryland, but Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia
What colony was founded by James Ogelthorpe? What was the motivation?
Georgia; interested in economic success but wre driven primarily by military and philanthropic motives--they wanted a military barrier against Spanish lands in south and a place where English men and women could begin anew without prospects at home
What was the Triangular trade?
an expanding transatlantic trade linking the North American colonies in an intricate network of commerce with England, continental Europe, and the west cost of Africa; merchants carried rum and other goods from New England to Africa, exchanged their merchandise for slaves
What is mercantilism?
the nation as a whole was teh principal actor in the economy, not the individuals; goal of economic activity should be to increase the nation's total wealth, believed one person (country) can only grow in wealth at someone else's expense
How did the Mayflower Compact show a tendency toward democracy?
the Pilgrims drew up and signed a document that pledged them to make decisions by the will of majority; represented both an early form of colonial self-government and an early form of written constitution, establishing the powers and duties of the government
How did the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut show a tendency toward democracy?
created a government similar to that of Massachusetts Bay but gave a larger proportion of the men the right to vote and hold offce
How did the Virginia House of Burgesses show a tendency toward democracy?
In response to the Stamp Act, Patrick Henry introduced a set of resolutions declaring that Americans possessed the same rights as the English especially the right ot be taxed only by their own representatives; that Virginians should pay no taxes except those voted by the Virinia assembly and that anyone advocation the right of Parliament to tax Virginians should be deemed an enemy of the colony
What was the major goal of the Act of Toleration in Maryland 1649?
Roman Catholics were not tolerated by Protestants in the colonies; in Maryland, they caused a problem, ironically since the colony had been founded as a refuge for them and had been distinguished by its Toleration Act; Catholics were deprived of political rights and couldnt hold religious services
What was the significance of tobacco in the Jamestown colony?
through teh forceful leadership of Captain John Smith and the establishment of a tobacco industry by John Rolfe, the Jamestown colony survived. Rolfe and Pocahontas developed a new variety of tobacco that brought financial prosperity to the colony
What was the majority American attitude toward the British Empire in the 1750s?
still friendly
What characterized the relationship between the American colonies and the British Empire by the mid 1770s?
by the 1770s, the colonists were frustrated with all of the taxes and acts and began to protest; ex. Boston Tea Party 1773
Why did Americans begin to feel a common bond against the British after 1763?
Proclamation of 1763 was the first act that colonies were angered by
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains
Author and purpose of Common Sense.
Thomas Paine; a pamphlet that made its readers understand the need to separate from Britain and that it was simply common sense
Author and purpose of Declaration of Independence.
Thomas Jefferson; July 1776; it recomended to various colonies that they establish new governments independent of the British Empire; stated people have rights: life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness and listed th crimes of the king had violated
Author and purpose of The Federalist Papers.
James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton; a defense of and justification for the new federal Constitution
Author and purpose of Exposition & Protest.
The document was a protest against the Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede; John C. Calhoun
The Articles of Confederation
John Dickinson; first constitution for the U.S. as a nation; congress modified the plan to protect the powers of the individual states; established a central government each state was given 1 vote and 9/13 votes were required to pass laws; problems-though the central government was intended to be weak, it caused 3 problems: 1. financial (most war debs were unpaid and congress had no taxing power) 2. Foreign (European nations had litte respect for a new nation that could neither pay its debts nor take effective and united action in a crisis) 3. Domestic (uprising against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, and lack of paper money)
U.S. Constitution
after problems with the Articles of Confederation, all the states (except Rhode Island) sent delegates to the Philadelphia constitutional convention to revise the Articles but ended up drafting a new document
republican government v. direct democracy
Land Ordinance of 1785
Congress created a system for surveying and selling the western lands; the territory north of the Ohio River would be surveyed and marked off into neat rectangular townships; established a pattern that left a makr on american landscape/economy
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
created a single Northwest Territory out of the lands north of the Ohio; specified a population 60,000 as a minimum for statehood, guaranteed freedom of religion and the right of trial by jury to residents of teh Northwest and prohibited slavery throughout the territory
term used to describe a situation in which the right to vote is not restricted by race, gender, belief or social status. It typically does not extend a right to vote to all residents of a region
property ownership
owning property was one of the requirements for voting...
Describe the condition of the soldiers of the Continental Army.
low pay, often rotten food, hard work, cold, heat, poor clothing and shelter, harsh discipline, and a high chance of becoming a casualty
Describe the leadership of George Washington as commander-in-chief and as teh first U.S. President.
courage, endurance, and attentiveness to the welfare of his troops worthy of approbation; refusal to become involved in politics buttressed his reputation as a man fully committed to the military mission at hand and above the factional fray
Great Compromise
the most important achievement was resolving the difficult problem of representation; 3/5 compromise: a compromise as to how slaves are counted as citizens since the south was so heavily populated with slaves
bicameral legislature
a legislature which consists of two chambers or houses (in this case House of Representatives and Senate)
separation of powers
(1) legislative powers to an elected two-house legislature (2) executive powers to an elected governor (3) judicial powers to a system of courts
checks and balances
congress would have two chambers that have members that are elected in different ways and for different terms; they each check each other since both have to agree before any lawa can be passed; president has the power to veto acts of congress and federal courts have protection from both the executive and the legislature b/c judges and justices would serve for life
"necessary & proper" clause
the 'elastic clause' states that the president has the power to do something he/she feels is necessary or proper without legislative consent
What percentage of Congress is required to override a presidential veto?
Why were the Bill of Rights added to the U.S. Constitution? List some rights.
Americans fought the Revolutionary War to escape tyranny of a central government in Britain and didn't want a repeat in the U.S. Ex. citizens have the right to trial by jury, righ tto bear arms etc.
Marbury v. Madison
This case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia by President John Adams shortly before leaving office, but whose commission was not delivered as required by John Marshall, Adams' Secretary of State. When Thomas Jefferson assumed office, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to withhold Marbury's and several other men's commissions. Being unable to assume the appointed offices without the commission documents, Marbury and three others petitioned the Court to force Madison to deliver the commission to Marbury. The Supreme Court denied Marbury's petition, holding that the statute upon which he based his claim was unconstitutional
What were the provisions of the Treaty of Paris 1783?
(1) Britain would recognize the existence of the United States as an independent nation (2) The Mississippi River would be the western boundary of that nation (3) Americans would have fishing rights off the coast of Canada (4) Americans would pay debts owed to British merchants and honor Loyalist claims for property confiscated during the war
What was teh role and relationship of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson in Washington's admninistration?
Thomas Jefferson=secretary of state Alexander Hamilton=secretary of treasury
What was the main purpose of Hamilton's financial program?
Hamilton's financial program would (1) pay off the national debts of the states (2) protect the young nation's new and developing industries and collect adequate revenues at the same time by imposing high tariffs on imported goods (3) creat a national bank for depositing government funds and for printing banknotes that would provide the basis for a stable U.S. currency; opposed by Anit-Federalists
Describe the message of Washington's Farewell Address.
warned -not to get involved in European affairs -agaisnt the U.S. making "permanent alliances" in foreign affairs -not to form political parties -to avoid sectionalism
British impressment
the act of kidnapping people to serve in the military or navy, usually by force and without notice
XYZ Affair
Adams sent delagates (known as X, Y, and Z) to negotiate
Monroe Doctrine of 1823
stated that European powers were no longer to colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent states of the Americas. The United States would not interfere with existing colonies or their dependencies in the Western Hemisphere. However, any attempt by a European nation to oppress or control any nation in the western hemisphere would be seen as an act of aggression and the United States would intervene
Embargo of 1807
an alternative to war; prohibited American merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port in hopes o fstopping Britain from violating rights; backfired and brought economic harship to U.S.; repealed in 1809
How did Andrew Jackson become a national hero? Why is it ironic?
General Andrew Jackson ended power of an important British ally, Creek nation; the battle of horseshoe bay eliminated the native americans ally and opened new land; ironic because the war was already over
Describe the economy and mood after the War of 1812.
as european goods became unavailable due to the British naval blockade, more U.S. factories were built and americans took a huge step toward self sufficiency; americans were proud of surviving 2 wars with britain
What prompted charges of a "corrupt bargin" after the presidential election of 1812?
Describe Jacksonian Democracy.
politics of the common man; expanded voting rights to all white males (owning property was no longer a requirement); ran against Whigs; wanted more public participation
What was the effect of the Tariff of Abominations of 1828?
the tariff put a tax on all imported goods because they were cheaper than u.s. made goods which made american businesses go out of business; more money leaving country than coming in; reduced the importation of British goods, making it difficult for the British to pay for the cotton they imported from the South
What is significant about the Election of 1828--political power & political parties?
adams wanted to be reelected but the Jacksonians were now ready to use the discontent of southerners and westerners and the crazy new campaign tactics of party organization to sweep Jackson into office. it got ugly! 3 times the # of voters participated than previous...jackson wins!
Describe the conflict between the Cherokees, the Supreme Court and President Jackson.
Indian Removal Act; Jackson's concept of democracy didnt extend to NAs; jackson thought the most humane solution was to compel NAs to leave their traditional homelands and resettle west of the Mississippi; the cherokees challenged georgia to the courts but the supreme court decided that the cherokees were not a foreign nation with the right to sue but in the second case, (worcester v. georgia) the court ruled that the laws of georgia had no force within the boundaries of the cherokee territory...jackson over-ruled and pushed them out
Which groups of people supported the Whig party?
New Englanders and residents of mid-Atlantic and upper-Middle-Western states; protestants of old English stock; middle class urban professionals
American transcendentalists characteristics and leaders.
argued for a mystical and intuitive way of thinking as a means for discovering one's inner self and looking for the essence of God in nature; Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau
Horace Mann
the common public school movement
Dorthea Dix
was horrified to find mentally ill people locked up with convicted criminals in unsanitary cells; dedicated her life to improving conditions & mental patients began recieving professional treatment at a state expense
Fredrick Douglas
a former slave that spoke about the brutality and degradation of slavery from firsthand experience; The North Star=antislavery journal
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
campaigned for womens rights after being barred from speaking at an antislavery convention
William Lloyd Garrison
began a publication of an abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, an event that marks the beginning of the radical abolitionist movement; founded the American Antislavery Society
Why did Irish immigration to the U.S. increase in the 1840s?
mostly tenant farmers driven from their homeland by potato crop failures and a devastating famine
What political party fromed as a nativist reaction to immigration?
What immigrant groups moved into the Appalachia as Indians were defeated and removed?
Identify Henry Clay's American System.
(1) protective tariffs--promote american manufacturing and also raise revenue to build a national transportation system of roads and canals (2) a national bank--keep teh system running smoothly by providing a national currency (3)internal improvements--madison and monroe objected that the constitution didnt provide for teh spending of federal money on roads adn canals
What sectional impact did Uncle Tom's Cabin have?
Harriet Beecher; moved a generation of northerners as well as many Europeans to regardall slave owners as monstrously cruel and inhuman
the typical "southern white lady" in antebellum America
Describe the patterns of slave ownership among white families in the antebellum South.
aristocracy=at least 100 slaves and 1000 acres; farmers=fewer than 20 slaves and several hundred acres; poor whites=3/4 of the south didnt own slaves
What group of whites didn't support slavery?
mountain people
How did slaves resist work on plantations?
work slowdowns, sabotage, escap and revolt
What invention increased Southern planters need for slaves?
the steel plow (John Deere) and mechanical reaper (Cryus McCormick) made it easier and less expensive to grow more
How did the U.S. population increase after 1808?
immigration from Europe due to (1) the development of inexpensive and relatively rapid ocean transportation (2) famines and revolutions in Europe that drove people from their homelands (3) growing reputation of U.S.
What president supported Manifest Destiny in the 1840s and what was it?
means the United State was 'destined' to reach from sea to sea; Polk supported MD
Transportation developments in 1820s, 1850s, regional differences in development
1820s=canal-building era; 1850s=railroads
What was the significance of the Erie Canal?
linked the economies of western farms and eastern cities; started a frenzy of canal building in other states
Explain the reasons for the rise of NYC from 1800-1850.
immigration surge; convenient since its near the ocean
Why was building a transcontinental RR initiated in the early 1860s? What factors contributed to RR expansion? How did the RR affect the economy?
to tie california to the union; the union pacific was to build westward across the Great Plains; financial panic forced a quarter of all railroads into bankruptcy; allowed faster transportation
Identify economic developments in the North, East, and West before the Civil War.
factory production expanded from the textile mills of New England to other states in teh Northeast; canals were replaced by railroads that expanded across the Northeast and Midwest
Explain the Lowell System of manufacturing.
after examining textile machinery in England, Francis Cabot Lowell developed a power loom that was better than its English counterpart; organized the Boston Manufacturing Company and founded the first mill to carry on the processes of spinning and weaving under a single roof
Name the two inventions of Eli Whitney
cotton gin and interchangeable parts
Transportation developments in 1820s, 1850s, regional differences in development
1820s=canal-building era; 1850s=railroads
What was the significance of the Erie Canal?
linked the economies of western farms and eastern cities; started a frenzy of canal building in other states
Explain the reasons for the rise of NYC from 1800-1850.
immigration surge; convenient since its near the ocean
Why was building a transcontinental RR initiated in the early 1860s? What factors contributed to RR expansion? How did the RR affect the economy?
to tie california to the union; the union pacific was to build westward across the Great Plains; financial panic forced a quarter of all railroads into bankruptcy; allowed faster transportation
Identify economic developments in the North, East, and West before the Civil War.
-factory production expanded from north to other states of the Northeast -canal building replaced by railroads across Northeast and Midwest
Describe the situation of women and immigrants in factory systems.
factories were large, noisy, unsanitary, and often dangerous; not paid well, long hours; earned less than men
What was Mexico's policy toward Texas in the 1820s and early 1830s? When and why did it change?
the amount of american settlers outnumbered mexicans in texas, Santa Anna made himself dictator in mexico and attacked the alamo; texas won independence and asked to be annexed into U.S.--denied
What were the major causes of the U.S. War with Mexico?
the annexation of Texas; Mexico-Texas border; u.s. persuasion to sell the California and New Mexico territories
Explain the meaning of,. and the significance of popular sovereignty in antebellum America.
Lewis Cass suggested that the matter or slavery be determined by a vote of the people who settled the territory; won support from moderate northerners and southerners
State the basic elements of Taney's Dred Scott decision and explain the significance of the decision.
Dred Scott was a former slave that moved to the free territory of Wisconsin for two years before returning to Missouri, he argued that his period of residence on free soil made him a free citizen and went to a court and sued for his freedom; went all the way to the supreme court and it was decided that DS had no right to sue in a federal court and that congress didnt have the power to deprive any person of property (slaves were considered property)
State the provisions and consequences of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries. The initial purpose of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was to create opportunities for a Mideastern Transcontinental Railroad. It was not problematic until popular sovereignty was written into the proposal.
What was the purpose of the postwar Southern Black Codes?
restricted the rights and movements of the newly freed african americans (1) prohibited blacks from renting land or borrowing money to buy land (2) placed freedmen into a form of semibondage by forcing them to sign work contracts (3) prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court
What was the result of the Presidential election of 1876?
democrats had returned to power in all states except S.Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana; republicans looked for someone untouched by the corruption of the grant administration and nominated Hayes; democrats chose Tilden; democrats won the popular votes but needed an electoral vote from S.Carolina, Florida and Louisiana; the votes went to hayes and republicans won!
Explain share cropping and its significance in the New South.
the landlord provided the seed and other needed farm supplies in return for a share (uaually half) of the harvest; system gave poor people of the rural south (whites and blacks) the opportunity to work a piece of land for themselves but sharecroppers usually remained either dependent on the landowners or in debt to local merchants; < 5% of blacks became independant landowners
Explain the origin, meaning, and significane of the "separate but equal" doctrine
Blacks were entitled to receive the same public services such as schools, bathrooms, and water fountains, but the 'separate but equal' doctrine mandated different facilities for the two groups
Explain the theories of Fredrick Jackson Turner's 'Significance of the American Frontier'
the frontier experience had promoted a habit of independence and individualism; acted as a powerful social leveler, breaking down class distinctions and fostering social and political democracy
Explain the thesis of 'The Century of Dishonor' by Helen Hunt Jackson
created sympaty for NA but motivated humanitarians to make formal education and training and conversion to christianity for them
Describe farming on the Great Plains 1870-90
the omestead act of 1862 gave 160 acres of public land free to any family that settled on it for a period of 5 years; 160 wasnt adequate for farming on the great plains though; houses built out of sod bricks; extremes of hot and cold weather; plagues of grasshoppers and lonliness; scarce water adn wood for fences was almost nonexistent--barbed wire and mindmills helped some
What was the impact of Anglo-Americans populating Hispanic California and Texas
Identify the Dawes Act 1887
designed to break up tribal organizations, which many felt kept NAs from becoming "civilized" and law-abiding citizens; divided tribal lands into plots of 160 acres or less depending on family size and u.s. citizenship was granted to those who stayed on the land for 25 years and adopted civilized life--failure
Explain factors leading to a cattle kingdom in the West. identify well known trails
List the native tribes of the Great Plains
Explain the reasons for the Sioux War 1875-76
What was the result of the Battle of Little Big Horn?
What was the result of the Battle at Wounded Knee?
What was the result of the Compromise of 1877?