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The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
mucous membranes of the respiratory tract
The ID50 is
the dose that will cause an infection in 50 percent of the test population.
Which of the following would be an example of an infection initiated via the parental route
An individual contracts hepatitis B from an accidental stick with a contaminated needle
Which of the following statements about adherence is true
Most bacterial adhesins are glycoproteins or lipoproteins.
All of the following are methods of avoiding host antibodies EXCEPT
A pathogen that is capable of antigenic variation can
Avoid host immune defenses
part of the gram-negative cell wall.
Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with the host's
Which of the following contributes to the virulence of a pathogen
numbers of microorganisms that gain access to a host, evasion of host defenses, and toxin production
Antibiotics can lead to septic shock if used to treat
Gram-negative bacterial infections
In response to the presence of endotoxin, phagocytes secrete tumor necrosis factor. This causes
decrease in blood pressure
In A-B exotoxins, the A component binds to the host cell receptor so that the B component can enter the cell
Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to
Which of the following is NOT a cytopathic effect (CPE) of viruses
All of the listed choices are possible cytopathic effects of viruses (the formation of a syncytium, chromosomal changes in the host cell, formation of inclusion bodies)
Symptoms of protozoan and helminthic diseases are due to
tissue damage due to growth of the parasite on the tissues, waste products excreted by the parasite, and products released from damaged tissues.
Many pathogens use the same portal for entry and exit from the body.
Innate immunity includes all of the following EXCEPT
production of antibody
TRLs attach to all of the following EXCEPT
The function of the "cilliary escalator" is to
Trap inhaled dust and microorganisms in mucus and propel it away from the lower respiratory tract
Normal microbiota provide protection from infection in each of the following ways EXCEPT
they produce lysozyme.
Macrophages arise from which of the following
Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity
Normal microbiota provide resistance to disease in all of the following ways EXCEPT
Serving as prebiotics
Which of the following is an effect of opsonization
increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms
Lysozyme and the antibiotic penicillin have similar mechanisms of action in that they both cause damage to the bacterial
All of the following increase blood vessel permeability EXCEPT
All of the following are components of the inflammatory process EXCEPT
Which statement regarding the lymphatic system is true
Lymphatic capillaries possess one-way valves. These valves permit the uptake of fluid from the body but do not allow the fluid to flow back out of the capillaries into the intracellular spaces.
Which of the following statements concerning phagocytosis is true
Bacteria are digested when the phagosome fuses with a lysosome.
Each of the following is an effect of complement activation EXCEPT
interference with viral replication
The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by
Several inherited deficiencies in the complement system occur in humans. Which of the following would be the MOST severe?
deficiency of C3
You note that the body temperature of one of your patients is starting to increase. As a result, you can infer that all of the following may be occurring in this patient EXCEPT
dilation of blood vessels
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