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Humber Real Estate - Course 4, Module 2: Understanding Commercial Construction
Terms in this set (99)
Industrial buildings range from warehouses that are typically 25,000 to 100,000 square feet, to a ________________________.
7500 acre oil refinery
What 3 categories are industrial properties divided into?
- General Purpose
- Special Purpose
- Single Purpose
Industrial properties are typically constructed with ____________________________, or a combination.
Concrete block, poured concrete, steel
Block buildings, often with _________ facing on the front and two sides, are a favourable choice for buyers, but ___________________ buildings generally dominate industrial structures
Brick, steel constructed
The requirements under the Ontario Building Code for industrial buildings are ______________________.
What kind of construction could be characterized by ______________________________ with drywall interiors?
Framed support walls, a pitched roof, brick/stone/siding finished exterior
Some farm buildings are designed for the storage of fertilizers and manure, and may have to comply with not only the Ontario Building Code but also the ________________________.
National Farm Building Code
Why might commercial property owners favour masonry walls?
Because they increase the thermal mass of a building and are energy efficient if suitable exterior coating is applied.
Wood framing is usually the most ______________ method.
In larger commercial structures, concrete block walls may be used with ______________________ to more effectively separate units for added structural mass, as well as fire requirements.
What kind of construction is more cost-effective for larger structures, in comparison to masonry or steel?
Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) products have thermal mass and high insulation values that _______________________________.
Reduce energy cost
Insulated Concrete Form is a framework of concrete protected by ____________________________________.
Two layers of thermal insulation
Note: The insulation stays in place as a permanent interior and exterior layer for walls, floors and roofs.
Steel is more commonly used with concrete wall systems to gain more _____________.
Which type of building material is more commonly used with concrete wall systems and is subject to more stringent requirements under the Ontario Building Code?
Note: This is because steels can bend and lose its strength when exposed to extreme heat. To offset this, steel buildings require additional fire-resistant materials, which can be costly.
Steel buildings can normally be constructed more ___________ than other building structures and provide greater internal ______________________.
Quickly, design creativity
Modular structures can be constructed with what materials?
Wood framing, cold-formed steel framing, hot rolled steel, concrete or a combination of these materials.
What are the primary construction benefits of pre-fabricated modular steel structures?
- Avoiding weather delays
- Quick on-site assembly
- Less opportunity for theft of building products associated with on-site construction
- Fewer subcontractors needed
- Time saved by simultaneously co-ordinating on-site improvements with off-site building construction
- The ability to easily relocate or expand the structure
Commercial projects located near a provincial highway required what from the Ministry of Transportation?
An additional permit
All new commercial spaces must comply with the Ontario Building Code and what Act?
Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2005
What can a builder warranty cover and protect against?
- Structural warranty coverage
- Protection and preventative care for building's internal and external features (e.g. parking lots, pools, etc.)
- Coverage of workmanship and materials (HVAC, elevators or electrical systems)
- How building repairs will be made
- Removal of debris and professional maintenance fees
- Protection against legal claims arising out of construction deficiencies
- Business interruption and loss of income due to builder's issues
What are the 4 types of LEED certifications a building can attain?
40-49 points can get a building certified
50-59 points gets a silver certification
60-79 points gets a gold certification
80+ points get a platinum certification
What are the benefits of LEED when buying a commercial building?
- Better chance of receiving financing as lender is reassured building is up-to-date
- More tenants as utility costs might be lower
- Saves energy & lower operating costs
- Good reputation
- Working environment (contributes to the health of the building and its occupants)
Zoning setbacks establish what?
- The minimum distance a building must be from the front, rear and side yard boundaries of the lot
- Sometimes can determine how far a building must be from a road or highway
When the appropriate setback is applied to a lot, an invisible rectangle is created and is called what?
The building envelope
Note: All structures, including the principal building, must be located within the building envelope.
The building envelope will determine the maximum ____________ of a building.
What is the impact that zoning setbacks have?
They will establish the total square footage of the building based on the Floor Area Ratio and height.
What is Daylighting?
- Applies to corner lots
- When a zoning bylaw can require additional building setbacks in order to achieve the required 'sight-line' (e.g. unobstructed view of areas surrounding the building)
How can Daylighting impact a building?
By reducing its size and the location of the building on the lot.
Define Lot Coverage
The maximum area of a lot that can be devoted to a building (e.g. if total property size is 4,000 square feet, and allowable lot coverage is 50%, building can cover 2,000 square feet of the property)
The overall size and height of a building will be determined by what zoning restrictions?
- Floor Area Ratio (FAR)
- Bylaw setbacks
- Overall height
- Gross area of the lot (total area of the lot without consideration for setbacks)
- Lot coverage (max area of the lot that can be devoted to building development)
The Floor Area Ratio (FAR) establishes the ____________________________ of the entire building, not just the main floor.
Maximum square footage
What will define the limited of the total floor area of a commercial building?
How is building height determined?
By calculating the distance between the established grade and elevation of the highest building point.
Some municipalities provide building limitations based on what?
The number of floors
Note: Floor height will also be specified. Height restrictions may impact design considerations, particularly when greater setbacks are imposed on higher floors.
What rooftop structures may exceed the permitted maximum height of a building?
- Satellite dishes
- Equipment that helps operate the building (e.g. electrical, ventilation, stairwells, etc.)
What are Shadow Impact Studies used for?
To show that the location and height of a proposed building will not cast a shadow over building facades, private and public outdoor amenities, open spaces, public parks, sidewalks and other places of concern.
What dictates the size and availability of on-site parking required?
Municipal zoning bylaws
How do zoning bylaws express minimum parking requirements?
A number of spaces per 1,000 square feet of floor area or similar ratio.
What is Greenspace Allocation?
The amount of undeveloped landscape the property is to have according to municipal zoning bylaws.
Define Floor Height
The top of the unfinished floor surface of one floor, to the top of the unfinished floor surface of the floor above in a multi-level building.
Floor height includes head space. What is Head Space?
The space above the ceiling, which is where services like HVAC, plumbing, ductwork, fire protection, lighting and other mechanical systems that service the office are located.
What are Curtain Walls?
- An exterior building component
- Widely used in Canadian office towers and other commercial structures
- Self-supporting, continuous cladding system, typically made of engineered composite panels inserted in aluminum or stainless steel framing
- Can also be high-performance glass with special coatings to minimize glare, and reflect long-wave radiation ... they contain a thin metallic layer that allows filtered sunlight into the structure during the winter months, while blocking the outward flow of heat (some can reduce heat and cold transfer)
What are the benefits of curtain walls?
Provide energy-efficient technology, which save a considerable amount in heating and cooling costs and increase comfort for occupants.
What exterior finishes are typically seen in smaller office buildings?
- Siding (wood, vinyl, aluminum) is usually installed to compliment brick veneer and/or exterior cladding options
- Stucco (applied wet; can be artistically sculpted)
- Exterior of concrete buildings are usually painted or a plastic wall coating is applied for greater durability
Floor height affects the cost of larger buildings. The more floors, the ______________ the building will be.
More floors means more ___________________, which means more rental income for the owner.
Rentable square feet
What are the benefits of a greater floor height?
- More air space and ventilation
- Greater clearances to accommodate high-intensity lighting systems now widely used in modern office towers
From a construction perspective, how can higher square footage be attained by increasing the number of floors?
- By using steel beam construction with a combination of concrete floors
- By using only concrete floor plates. This system helps maximize the space between the finished floor and ceiling.
Buildings with a single tenant (where most staff have a similar function) typically use what kind of core design where the stairwells are located at the end of the halls and not incorporated into the building core?
Buildings with multiple tenants (and requirements for executive corner offices) typically use what kind of core design where the stairwells are located in the centre along with other functions and services for occupants are located (washrooms, elevator banks, etc.)?
What is a Floor Plate?
The total square footage of each floor in a multi-level building.
The size of each floor plate may vary, depending on what?
- The design of the building
- Zoning requirements (setbacks, etc.)
- The Ontario Fire Code
What exterior finishes are used in large office buildings?
- Curtain walls
- Poured concrete walls
- Painted or dyed concrete walls
- Concrete with plastic wall coating
To accurately calculate floor measurements, property owners and managers use what standard method?
The BOMA Method (Building Owners and Managers Association)
What considerations would impact the construction of a building from a regulatory standpoint?
- Greenbelt zones
- Distance separations
- Access and egress points
What are the benefits of masonry walls?
- Termite free
- Sound proof
- Easy maintenance
- Energy efficient
What are the cons of masonry walls?
- Efflorescence can form when too much moisture accumulates
- Over time, the joint between the blocks will deteriorate, allowing water to enter the building
- The joints often have to be replaced in a process called "re-pointing" which can be labour intensive and costly
Why are single purpose buildings considered difficult to market?
Because of their specialized features and they are a challenge to appraise because of lack of comparable properties
What are some examples of industrial buildings requiring heavy use?
- Brick production
- Meat rendering plant
What are some examples of industrial buildings requiring light use?
- Industrial laundry facility
- Lumber yard
Industrial parks may serve as a buffer between ______________________ and business/residential districts.
Heavy industrial activities
Zoning restrictions exist to control both the _________________________ of an industrial space in addition to the height.
Office floor area
Why are pre-engineered steel buildings a popular choice for buyers?
Buyer only needs to establish the size/shape of the building, substructure/foundation, roof structure/materials, exterior enclosure enhancements, location of windows, doors and loading docks.
Buyer then would consult with their engineer to create the blueprints and related specifications that comply with the Ontario Building Code.
What type of building is manufactured at a factory with all parts pre-cut to match the dimensions on the blueprints?
Pre-engineered steel buildings
Define Clear Span
Refers to the amount of floor area that is clear of interference from columns and walls.
Define Clear Height
Refers to the unobstructed distance from the floor to the bottom of the lowest ceiling/roof component.
What is a Bay?
An unfinished area within the building located between a row of columns and the bearing wall.
Bearing walls are the walls that hold the weight of the building.
What does Bay Depth refer to?
The distance from the bearing wall to a row of columns within a building.
It can also be the distance from one row of columns to another.
Bay depth and bay height are important in determining how to use the space in the ______________________ way possible.
What is a Loading Dock?
An area found in industrial structures designed for the on-loading and off-loading of products and raw materials by truck.
What are some common loading dock features?
- Flexible shelters
- Enclosed canopies designed to reduce wind drafts between trucks and interior areas
- Dock pads (large foam rectangles or pads attached to the exterior of the building that seal the space between the back of the truck and the building
- Trailer/truck tethers, which secure vehicles to the building and prevent accidental movement
- Heat/air curtain, which is a wall of forced air that prevents cold winter air or hot summer air from entering the building when the dock doors open
- Levellers, which are adjustable platforms between where the trucks offload and onload and the permanent dock doors. Levellers are rated in terms of lift capacity and are normally operated by a motor.
Floor load refers to how much weight a floor can hold. Floor loads consist of live loads and ______________________.
What are live loads?
The weight that could fluctuate each day.
What are dead loads?
The weight that will not fluctuate. (e.g. the weight of the structure itself and permanent equipment)
What are the 3 components of live loads?
- The weight from the number of people
- The weight from the total equipment and furnishings
- The weight of stored materials
What documentation sets out live load requirements according to use and occupancy?
The Ontario Building Code
Flat/sloped roofing is a common ________________ for industrial buildings.
They contain a four-inch rise of slope for every 12 feet of run.
Decking is a material commonly used in _____________________.
Decking rests between the structural components of a roof (i.e. the trusses and joists) and the ________________________________ layers.
Insulation and weatherproofing
Most industrial roofs are made with what materials?
Steel or concrete
Note: Wood is usually found in older structures
HVAC units are composed of what components?
- Air Handler
- Condensing Unit
- Rooftop HVAC
- Unit Heater
What are the 5 types of sprinkler systems?
- Wet pipe system
- Dry pipe system
- Pre-action system
- Deluge system
- Combined dry pipe and pre-action system
What are the 3 types of cranes?
- Bridge (operate on horizontal rails)
- Gantry (portable, operate on wheels, movement in multiple directions is possible)
- Jib (have an arm attached at an angle to a rotating mast that permits 360 degree swivelling around that mast)
What does Compatible Design mean?
Bringing together stores that sell the same types of products. For example, having tech-related stores in the same complex.
Multi-residential buildings have more people that occupy a smaller space.
This means that they fall into a higher ________________________ that permits a greater number of units.
Zoning bylaws determine the number of units _________________ for multi-residential structures.
Zoning bylaws restrict the ________________ of multi-residential structures to ensure a high-density development.
Minimum lot area
True or false? Zoning bylaws will dictate the number of elevators for a structure?
The need for elevators will depend on the number of occupants and traffic in the building, as well as the height of the building.
Only multi-residential structures over 4 storeys will require an elevator.
Only multi-residential structures over ___ storeys will require an elevator.
Larger multi-residential buildings generally follow construction methods found in what type of buildings?
Large office buildings
What is the Canada Plan Service?
A Canada-wide network of agricultural engineers and livestock specialists focusing on the planning, design and construction of modern farm buildings.
The Ontario Building Code also allows farm building construction to be regulated by the _____________________________________.
National Farm Building Code
Who issues building permits for farm structures?
The building department of the applicable municipality.
Municipal officials may required what before issuing a building permit?
- Engineered drawings to ensure that structural designs can property hold anticipated loads (e.g. weight of machinery and feed/storage bins)
- A site investigation may also be necessary to assess soil conditions for heavy structures, such as a tower silo
Describe Minimum Distance Separation I (MDS I)
The minimum separation distance required between a proposed new development and existing livestock barns, manure storage and/or anaerobic digesters (i.e. a large sealed water tank where microorganisms break down biodegradable waste).
Describe Minimum Distance Separation II (MDS II)
The minimum separation distance required between proposed new, expanding, or remodeled livestock barns, manure storages and/or anaerobic digesters and existing or approved development, such as houses, recreational areas and other land uses.
What are Minimum Distance Separation (MDS) Calculations based on?
- Types of livestock
- Maximum number of livestock based on barn capacity or lot size
- Percentage increase in the size of the operation
- Type of manure system and storage
- Type of land use affected by the agricultural property
Total allowable off-street parking spaces will typically be established based on the structure use and _______________________.
Gross floor area
Note: The gross floor area is the sum area of the entire building structure.
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