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Developmental Psych Final
Terms in this set (54)
Describe primary vs. Secondary aging
Primary = gradually occurring, experienced by everyone, based on genetics
Secondary = different outcomes depending on personal behavior/practices, often preventable
What are the main target organs/systems in middle adulthood senescence?
3. skeletal/muscular system
4. sensory system
What are the signs of senescence in skin?
- loss of elasticity= wrinkles
- loss of moisture= dry/thin
- loss of collagen= about 1% every year after 20
What are signs of senescence in hair?
- loss of pigmentation= turns grey
- thinning/loss of hair becomes noticeable
- affected based on genetics
What are the signs of senescence in the skeletal/muscular system?
- loss of height in the 50s+
- reduction in strength
- bad posture can cause affect
What are the signs of senescence in the sensory system?
- continued vision and hearing loss
Which person most likely has the most acute hearing?
A. Linda, aged 30
B. Alice, age 10
C. Tyler, age 20
D. John, age 40
What are some vision changes in midlife?
- loss of vision accommodation (presbyopia)
- slower dark adaptation
- peripheral vision shrinks
- color vision fades
Who is more likely to develop an eye disorder/disease?
Individuals who did not have vision correction because they tend not to go get eye exams like those with vision correction
What are some hearing changes in midlife?
- drop in high frequency sensitivity (presbycusis)
- greater distraction from masking
What are common health issues in middle adulthood?
- drop in immune system efficiency
- chronic diseases begin to appear
- hypertension: high blood pressure
- weight gain
By 30s about what percent of the populations overweight with a BMI of 25+ ?
Of the 74% of adults overweight, what percentage are obese?
Explain the difference between male and female climacteric
- women have an abrupt hormonal change - higher interest, less activity
- men have a gradual hormonal change, less interest, same activity
What is menopause?
when ovaries stop releasing eggs -- produce less estrogen and testosterone
What are physical symptoms of menopause
- vaginal dryness
- body temperature disturbances like
hot flashes, hot flushes, and cold sweats
What are psychological symptoms of menopause?
What is primary vs. secondary infertility and the percentages of both?
primarterm-28y = never able to conceive naturally - 2%
secondary = inability to have a second child after a year of trying - 10%
When is peak fertility for women?
18 years old
If John and Mary attempt to conceive at 40 years old what is the percentage of not being able to?
What is a common reason for male infertility?
low sperm count
Margaret has noticed that it is becoming increasingly difficult to read items when they are closer to her. She is MOST likely developing
B. Motion Perception
Name the 4 main brain changes in middle adult hood
1. brain size decreases
2. working memory shrinks
3. hippocampus becomes less efficient
4. neural transmission speed declines
What gets harder as working memory shrinks?
What part of the brain needs more effort to store new memories?
What are the limitations of cross sectional studies?
- suffers a cohort problem - confounds age and generational experiences
- gives overly negative picture
What are the limitations of longitudinal studies?
- suffers from practice effects and selective subject loss
- presents an overly optimistic picture
A combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal design is called
When was the Seattle Longitudinal study conducted?
Variation among humans in aging is..
A. mostly environmental
B. Almost entirely genetic
C. About half genetic and half environmental
D. Mostly genetic
D. Mostly genetic
According to Chapter 20's Inside the Brain feature, titled "Neurons Forming in Adulthood", one brain area that gains neurons during adulthood is the _____, the brain structure that is most prominent in memory.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neurocognitive disorder stemming from:
A. Chronic Hypertension
C. Alcohol abuse
D. A dominant gene
C. Alcohol abuse
What is fluid intelligence? and how is it effected by age?
it is rapid and flexible thinking like: working memory, abstract thought, and speed task
What is crystallized intelligence? and how is it effected by age?
it is thinking based on accumulated knowledge: vocabulary and random facts like jeopardy
What are the 4 steps of expert thought?
What are the big 5 personality traits?
People who are organized, deliberate, conforming, and self-discipline have which personality trait?
People who are described as anxious, moody, self-punishing, and critical have which personality trait?
People who are outgoing, assertive, and active have which personality trait?
People who are imaginative, curious, artistic, and open to new experiences have which personality trait?
People who are kind, helpful, easygoing, generous, and trusting have which personality trait?
Examples of evidence for midlife crisis:
- physical changes
- job/career changes
- parent role changes
- aging parents
- marital satisfaction
- teenage rebellion
- empty nest
- sandwich generation
examples of evidence against midlife crisis:
- gender differences
- cohort differences
- social class differences
- personality stability
- ecological niche
As adults age they tend to become less _______ and more __________
less neurotic and more conscientiousness
Individuals ages 60-75 are considered
Individuals ages over 75 are considered
Individuals ages over 85 are considered
The demographic "pyramid" is becoming what shape?
What is the average life expectancy in the US for females?
What is the average life expectancy in the US for males?
What is allostatic load?
all stressors combined:
- enviornmental stressors
- major life events
- high risk of disease
what is weathering?
accumulation of stressors over time that lead to premature biological aging
The Seattle longitudinal study was which kind of study design?
cross-sequential - longitudinal and cross sectional combined
What was found from the Seattle longitudinal study in terms of intelligence?
don't see a major drop off like in cross sectional, see a gradual increase and hit plato at about 50s
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