Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Biology Semester Test
2nd Semester Vocabulary
Terms in this set (166)
The scientific study of heredity
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
Parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
offspring of the F1 generation
Different forms of a gene
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Principle of Segregation
During meiosis, chromosome pairs separate into different gametes such that each of the two alleles for a given trait appears in a different gamete.
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype
Principle of Independent Assortment
states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
Cross or mating between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits
inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype intermediate between the phenotypes of the two homozygotes
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
occurs when multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait
tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
the study of factors that cause populations to increase or decrease
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
The patterns that occur in certain distributions over a given area.
counting nests, burrows, or tracks rather than organisms
mark and recapture
capturing and marking organisms, then recapturing them and counting how many are marked
square frames (usually 1m x1m) used in estimating abundance in plants or slow-moving animals
Movement of individuals into a population
movement of individuals out of a population
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
growth pattern in which a population's growth slows and then stops following a period of exponential growth
the curve of the exponential growth model when graphed
the shape of the logistic growth model when graphed
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
A community of organisms and their abiotic environment
living parts of an ecosystem
Nonliving components of environment.
Place where an organism lives
An organism's particular role in an ecosystem, or how it makes its living.
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
area near equator - warm year round
the north or south pole and its surrounding area
moderate climate zone between the polar zones and the tropics
specific location of a gene on a chromosome
chromosome theory of inheritance
A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.
gene located on the X or Y chromosome
X chromosome inactivation
process that occurs in female mammals in which one of the X chromosomes is randomly turned off in each cell
A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
a variety of disorders marked by inability to distinguish some or all colors
structures, functions, or behaviors that enable a species to survive
a person from whom one is descended
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
Evolution toward similar characteristics in unrelated species
no longer in existence
Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
Preserved remains of once-living organisms
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.
a sudden population decline caused by predation, waste accumulation, or resource depletion
boom and bust cycle
a period of strong economic growth followed by a period of sharp decline
An environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing
density-dependent limiting factor
limiting factor that depends on population size
density-independent limiting factor
limiting factor that does NOT depend on population size
age structure diagram
graph of the numbers of males and females within different age groups of a population
All the different populations that live together in an area
competition between members of the same species
competition between members of different species
competitive exclusion principle
Ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time
Climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions.
a broadleaf evergreen forest found in wet and hot regions near the equator.
Dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest trees
A layer of shorter plants that grow in the shade of a forest canopy.
A biome found in the dry temperate interiors of continents. This biome is characterized by rich soil, moderate rainfall, a hot, dry climate, thick grasses, and herds of grazing animals.
An area of grassland with scattered trees and bushes
An extremely dry area with little water and few plants
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
The scientific study of how living things are classified
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
Evolutionary history of a species
A family tree that shows the evolutionary relationships thought to exist among groups of organisms
study of form
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
Body parts that share a common function, but not structure
A phylogenetic classification system that uses shared derived characters and ancestry as the sole criterion for grouping taxa.
trait that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members
(1707-1778) Founder of taxonomy, the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying organisms. Developed two part system of naming organisms.
a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters
The name given to each species, consisting of its genus and its species label
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species
An interaction in which one organism kills another for food.
An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism
close interaction between species in which one species lives in or on the other
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance
succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
state of "balance" in an ecosystem
temperate deciduous forest
forest in a temperate region, characterized by trees that drop their leaves annually
Forest populated by cone-bearing evergreen trees; mostly found in northern latitudes
An extremely cold, dry biome.
Ground that is permanently frozen
Includes streams, rivers, lakes, marshes and swamps; low salt levels
An ecosystem found in oceans, seas, and gulfs where the water has a salt content of at least 3.5%.
land consisting of marshes or swamps; saturated land.
the tidal mouth of a large river, where the tide meets the stream.
water having a salty taste and unpleasant to drink
Portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate.
permanently dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone
the bottom region of oceans and bodies of fresh water
the narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide
Area of ocean that extends from the low-tide line out to the edge of the continental shelf
vast open ocean from the edge of the continental shelf outward
spots on the ocean floor where hot gases and minerals escape from earth's interior into the water
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
Organisms that make their own food; another term for autotroph
An organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains; another term for heterotroph.
An organism that makes its own food
An organism that cannot make its own food.
A consumer that eats only plants.
An organism that eats both plants and animals
bacteria, fungi, and organisms that obtain energy from wastes or dead organisms
organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Each step in a food chain or food web
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems
A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem
total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
A diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
Diagram representing the biomass in each trophic level of an ecosystem
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
The continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
The organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
the state or process of rotting; decay.
The transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
the process by which nitrites and nitrates are produced by bacteria in the soil
process in which fixed nitrogen compounds are converted back into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere
the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.
Destruction of forests
The loss of a natural habitat
species moved by humans to new geographic areas, either intentionally or accidentally
excessive use of species that have economic value
Release of harmful materials into the environment
A gradual increase in average global temperature
A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria.
accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chain
A species whose numbers are so small that the species is at risk of extinction
Protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment
The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained
Other sets by this creator
Semester Test Study Guide - M
Midterm Vocabulary - Spring 2021
Biology Semester test 2020
AP Biology Semester Test Study Guide