In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that racially segregated public facilities were legal, so long as the facilities for Black people and whites were equal. In the case that would become most famous, a plaintiff named Oliver Brown filed a class-action suit against the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in 1951, after his daughter, Linda Brown, was denied entrance to Topeka's all-white elementary schools. Brown claimed that schools for Black children were not equal to the white schools, and that segregation violated the so-called "equal protection clause" of the 14th Amendment. When Brown's case and four other cases related to school segregation first came before the Supreme Court in 1952, the Court combined them into a single case under the name Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. In the decision, issued on May 17, 1954, Warren wrote that "in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place," as segregated schools are "inherently unequal." As a result, the Court ruled that the plaintiffs were being "deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment." By overturning the "separate but equal" doctrine, the Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education had set the legal precedent that would be used to overturn laws enforcing segregation in other public facilities. But despite its undoubted impact, the historic verdict fell short of achieving its primary mission of integrating the nation's public schools Glasnost is Russian for "the fact of being public." This term refers to the transparency and openness policies and government initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev. Gorbachev started implementing these policies in 1985, along with perestroika (reconstruction/reform). These policies were enacted in what was the Soviet Union (USSR) at the time, which includes Russia, as well as other Siberian and European countries around it.
The historical significance of glasnost is that it signalled and brought about the end of the Soviet Union. Dissolution of the USSR began in 1988, as Gorbachev became General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985, lasting until 1991 (when dissolution ended, as well as being president from 1990 to 1991). When he became General Secretary, he started implementing such policies like glasnost and perestroika. Of course, he still believed in socialist ideas, he believed it was very necessary to reform to something more sustainable and functioning, especially after Chernobyl in 1986. Glasnost is mostly associated with judicial system reform, such as allowing press and the public to see verdicts being read and court trials. In general, glasnost also allowed for more freedom of speech and communication, although still not much.
Huey Long, in full Huey Pierce Long, (born August 30, 1893, near Winnfield, Louisiana, U.S., died September 10, 1935, Baton Rouge, Louisiana), flamboyant and demagogic governor of Louisiana and U.S. senator whose social reforms and radical welfare proposals were ultimately overshadowed by the unprecedented executive dictatorship that he perpetrated to ensure control of his home state. In spite of an impoverished background, young Long managed to obtain enough formal schooling to pass the bar examination in 1915. He was politically ambitious and won election to the state railroad commission at age 25. In this post his calls for the equitable regulation of the state utility companies and his attacks on Standard Oil earned him widespread popularity. He ran for the Louisiana governorship in 1924 and was defeated, but in 1928 he won the governorship through the heavy support of the discontented rural districts. His picturesque if irreverent speech, fiery oratory, and unconventional buffoonery soon made him nationally famous, and he was widely known by his nickname, "Kingfish." Long made a genuine contribution with an ambitious program of public works and welfare legislation in a state whose road system and social services had been sadly neglected by the wealthy elite that had long controlled the state government. Always the champion of poor whites, he effected a free-textbook law, launched a massive and very useful program of road and bridge building, expanded state university facilities, and erected a state hospital where free treatment for all was intended. He was opposed to excessive privileges for the rich, and he financed his improvements with increased inheritance and income taxes as well as a severance tax on oil—earning him the bitter enmity of the wealthy and of the oil interests. The NAFTA, or the (North American Free Trade Agreement), was an agreement implemented in the year of 1993 to support trade between Canada, the United States, and Mexico. This agreement not only created safety regulations within the work place, but it also in many cases prevented businesses from relocating to other countries of lower wages and exploiting these countries. In addition, the North American Free Trade Agreement also freed up or reduced many tariffs such as those related to railroads, automobiles, agricultural universal products, and textiles. This opened up the door for an explosion of huge free trade, creating a zone of income that the world had never seen before across nations. In addition to being a symbol of the (at the time) new globalized marketplace, it also stood as something that was largely supported by the Clinton campaign, which at the time helped to produce common ground between Clinton and congressional Republicans in quote, "pursuing fateful new efforts at financial deregulation" (pg 710). The Civilian Conservation Corps, or the CCC, was a government program created by Congress in 1933 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt's presidency to hire young unemployed men to improve the rural, out-of-doors environment with such work as planting trees, fighting fires, draining swamps, and maintaining national parks.
The CCC was a nationwide legislation. Most of the unemployed men were from the East, and most of the work was set in the West.
The country was pulling itself out of the Great Depression while facing its highest ever rate of unemployment with one out of every four workers, jobless. President Roosevelt wanted to use federal money to assist the unemployed and to "prime the pump" of industrial recovery, thus the CCC was born.
The CCC proved to be an important foundation for the post-WWII environmental movement. CCC was responsible for over half the reforestation, public and private, done in the nation's history. CCC companies contributed to an impressive number of state and national park structures that visitors can still enjoy today. More than 700 new state parks were established through the CCC program. The CCC even became a model for future conservation programs.
The Iran-Contra affair (1980s) was an arms deal with Iran that resulted in a major scandal of Ronald Reagan. Despite Reagan having promised voters that he would never negotiate with terrorists and despite there being an amendment, the Boland amendment, that was passed in the beginning of Reagan's term to keep American money from funding military assistance to groups that were trying to overthrow the Nicaraguan government, such as the Contras, Reagan sold Iran weapons. At the time, 7 American hostages were being held by an Iranian-backed terrorist group, so Reagan thought that the selling of weapons to Iran would lead to the release of the hostages, which it did. The money that Iran used to pay for the weapons went to the Contras, as Reagan was interested in helping them. Later, a newspaper named Al-Shiraa reported the arms deal, which had begun the unraveling of the scandal, eventually leading a nationally broadcasted investigation. Although President Reagan had lied and been perceived in a negative light by some, he was still an extremely popular president and his reputation seemingly remained intact, and it is often an overlooked period in history. Gifford Pinchot (born Aug. 11, 1865, Simsbury, Conn., U.S.—died Oct. 4, 1946, New York, N.Y.), timber and environmental pioneer and public official in the United States. Pinchot earned his Yale diploma in 1889 and studied at the National Forestry School in Nancy, France, and Switzerland, Germany, and Austria. Upon his return to the United States in 1892, he started the first organized forestry work in the country at Biltmore, George W. Vanderbilt's estate in North Carolina. Pinchot started working for the government when he was only a teenager. Pinchot was appointed to the National Forest Commission by President Grover Cleveland in 1896 to create a strategy for the country's Western forest reserves. Pinchot was appointed director of the Division of Forestry, later called the United States Forest Service, an arm of the United States Department of Agriculture, in 1898. He called for scientific conservation, scheduled use, and renewal of the nation's forest reserves in this position. Significantly, Pinchot acquired ownership of the national forest reserves in 1905, significantly expanding the Forest Service's jurisdiction. Pinchot manipulated the economic value of these lands as head of the Service by devising a scheme that enabled private interests to cultivate the lands under terms set by the US government in return for small fees. "The art of growing whatever the forest can produce for the service of man," Pinchot described forestry. He was Governor of Pennsylvania for two terms (1923-29 and 1931-35), during which he was most proud of paving the state's gravel roads. Though Pinchot's federal government forestry career came to an end, he remained involved until his death in 1946.