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History Final Review

Terms in this set (33)

In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that racially segregated public facilities were legal, so long as the facilities for Black people and whites were equal. In the case that would become most famous, a plaintiff named Oliver Brown filed a class-action suit against the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in 1951, after his daughter, Linda Brown, was denied entrance to Topeka's all-white elementary schools. Brown claimed that schools for Black children were not equal to the white schools, and that segregation violated the so-called "equal protection clause" of the 14th Amendment. When Brown's case and four other cases related to school segregation first came before the Supreme Court in 1952, the Court combined them into a single case under the name Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. In the decision, issued on May 17, 1954, Warren wrote that "in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place," as segregated schools are "inherently unequal." As a result, the Court ruled that the plaintiffs were being "deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment." By overturning the "separate but equal" doctrine, the Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education had set the legal precedent that would be used to overturn laws enforcing segregation in other public facilities. But despite its undoubted impact, the historic verdict fell short of achieving its primary mission of integrating the nation's public schools
Huey Long, in full Huey Pierce Long, (born August 30, 1893, near Winnfield, Louisiana, U.S., died September 10, 1935, Baton Rouge, Louisiana), flamboyant and demagogic governor of Louisiana and U.S. senator whose social reforms and radical welfare proposals were ultimately overshadowed by the unprecedented executive dictatorship that he perpetrated to ensure control of his home state. In spite of an impoverished background, young Long managed to obtain enough formal schooling to pass the bar examination in 1915. He was politically ambitious and won election to the state railroad commission at age 25. In this post his calls for the equitable regulation of the state utility companies and his attacks on Standard Oil earned him widespread popularity. He ran for the Louisiana governorship in 1924 and was defeated, but in 1928 he won the governorship through the heavy support of the discontented rural districts. His picturesque if irreverent speech, fiery oratory, and unconventional buffoonery soon made him nationally famous, and he was widely known by his nickname, "Kingfish." Long made a genuine contribution with an ambitious program of public works and welfare legislation in a state whose road system and social services had been sadly neglected by the wealthy elite that had long controlled the state government. Always the champion of poor whites, he effected a free-textbook law, launched a massive and very useful program of road and bridge building, expanded state university facilities, and erected a state hospital where free treatment for all was intended. He was opposed to excessive privileges for the rich, and he financed his improvements with increased inheritance and income taxes as well as a severance tax on oil—earning him the bitter enmity of the wealthy and of the oil interests.
Gifford Pinchot (born Aug. 11, 1865, Simsbury, Conn., U.S.—died Oct. 4, 1946, New York, N.Y.), timber and environmental pioneer and public official in the United States. Pinchot earned his Yale diploma in 1889 and studied at the National Forestry School in Nancy, France, and Switzerland, Germany, and Austria. Upon his return to the United States in 1892, he started the first organized forestry work in the country at Biltmore, George W. Vanderbilt's estate in North Carolina. Pinchot started working for the government when he was only a teenager. Pinchot was appointed to the National Forest Commission by President Grover Cleveland in 1896 to create a strategy for the country's Western forest reserves. Pinchot was appointed director of the Division of Forestry, later called the United States Forest Service, an arm of the United States Department of Agriculture, in 1898. He called for scientific conservation, scheduled use, and renewal of the nation's forest reserves in this position. Significantly, Pinchot acquired ownership of the national forest reserves in 1905, significantly expanding the Forest Service's jurisdiction. Pinchot manipulated the economic value of these lands as head of the Service by devising a scheme that enabled private interests to cultivate the lands under terms set by the US government in return for small fees. "The art of growing whatever the forest can produce for the service of man," Pinchot described forestry. He was Governor of Pennsylvania for two terms (1923-29 and 1931-35), during which he was most proud of paving the state's gravel roads. Though Pinchot's federal government forestry career came to an end, he remained involved until his death in 1946.