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Terms in this set (74)
Type of microbial control done when dealing with commercially packaged foods.
Define thermal death point (TDP)
Lowest temperature at which all cells in a culture are killed in 10 min
Define Thermal death time (TDT)
Time needed to kill all cells in a culture
Define Decimal reduction Time (DRT)
Minutes needed to kill 90% of a population at a given temperature.
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: Boiling water
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: Tyndallization
Moist - aka fractional sterilization wherein there is intermittent used of free-flowing steam for 30-60mins
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: Pasteurization
Differentiate the 3 levels of pasteurization
Classical: 63C for 30min
High: 72C for 15s
Ultra high: 140C for <1s
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: Autoclaving
aka steam and pressure
Standard setting for autoclaving?
at least 15 min
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: Hot air
DRY (ex. dry or hot air oven)
This microbial control method is used to sterilize glassware and oils.
Dry heat HOT AIR
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: Incineration
Differentiate the 2 types of Incineration regarding their purpose
Bunsen Flam: sterilize loops and needles
Furnace: burn animal carcasses
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: Protein denaturation
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: Protein coagulation
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: denaturation
*same lang ba sa proetin degen kasi if oo then BOTH
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: Dehydration
MOIST HEAT vs DRY HEAT: oxidation
This type of radiation ejects orbital electrons from an atom.
This type of radiation raises atoms to a higher energy level
Type of Radiation: alternative sterilization method for materials sensitive to heat or chemicals
Type of Radiation: alternative disinfectant such as a germicidal lamp (UV lamp)
Give examples of Ionizing radiation vs Non-ionizing radiation
Ionizing: X-ray, gamma, electron beams
Non-ionizing: UV light, Microwave
Higher energy higher penetration
Higher wavelength lower energy
Type of radiation: penetrates liquids and solids effectively
type of radiation: results to formation of pyrimidine dimers
Cold temperature can reduce microbial activity except for?
Psychrophiles aka Cryophiles
Dehydration which stops microbial metabolism
Freeze-drying in a vacuum to preserve microbes and vaccines.
This microbial control is used for liquids that are heat-sensitive such as serum, vaccines and media.
Mechanical removal (filtration)
Used as surgical hand scrubs and pre-op skin preparation = anti-sepsis
MOA of Chlorhexidine
It is (+) charged so it is attracted to the (-) charged phospholipids. It binds to cell walls causing it to rupture = leak.
These are oxidizing agents that disrupt sulfhydryl groups in amino acids.
*Examples: Iodine, Chlorine
Tincture is an example of?
A low-level disinfectant in the clinical setting
Quaternary ammonium (quats)
An ideal antimicrobial drug is MICROBICIDAL or MICROBISTATIC?
Microbicidal = we want to kill!
This term means use of drugs to treat diseases
This are drugs used to treat infectious diseases
These substances are produced by some microbes that inhibit or kill bacteria
These are antimicrobial compounds synthesized in laboratories.
What are considerations to take note of when giving antimicrobials?
Liver function test
Renal function test
Alexander Fleming discovered PCN from what microbe?
Who performed the first clinical trials for PCN?
Howard Florey and Ernst Chain
Differentiate Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) from Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)
MIC: Lowest concentration needed to inhibit visible microbial growth.
MBC: Lowest concentration needed to kill the germ.
Explain Kirby-Bauer Test
Also known as Disk Diffusion Antibiotic Sensitivity Test
Uses antibiotic-impregnated wafers to test bacterial susceptibility.
Clearing = zone of inhibition = susceptibility
Has specific measurement criteria per antibiotic
Based on PPT's table: S. aureus is resistant to 4 drugs namely?
Enumerate the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance (5)
Inactivation or enzymatic destruction of the drug
Prevention of drug penetration / altering drug receptor / binding sites
(+) drug pumps for rapid ejection
Altering drug target sites
Microbe finds an alternate metabolic pathway
How can resistance be passed from one bacteria to another?
Resistance genes are often in plasmids or transposons = transferred to other bacteria.
Enumerate 5 ways to MISUSE antibiotics
Using outdated weakened antibiotics
Not finishing prescription
Using someone else's prescription
Using antibiotics for common flu
Adding antibiotics in animal feed
T or F: Antibiotic resistance can develop by natural selection?
True via mutation for survival and proliferation of the microbe
This antibiotic's action is against the bacteria's cell membrane
Antibiotics can act against protein synthesis. Enumerate the antibiotics according to site of action in the ribosomal subunit.
This antibiotic inhibits folic acid metabolism in bacteria
This antibiotic inhibit gyrase (unwinding enzymes) of bacteria
This antibiotic inhibits RNA polymerase
These antibiotics block synthesis and repair of the bacterial cell wall:
CycloSERINE (not cyclohexamide!!!!!)
This drug inhibits viral entry by inhibiting binding of HIV to GP41
This drug inhibits viral entry by inhibiting Neuraminidase
Both Amantadine and Relenza are used against Influenza virus. Differentiate MOA.
Amantadine interferes with fusion and release of virus
Relenza inhibits NA needed for entry and assembly
This drug inhibits nucleic acid synthesis of HIV by inhibiting reverse transcriptase
This drug inhibits nucleic acid synthesis of HIV by binding to the reverse transcriptase binding site
Differentiate zidovudine and nevirapine classficiation
Z: Nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor
N: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
This drug against herpes inactivates viral DNA polymerase and terminates DNA replications
*MC drug for herpes
DOC for Mycobacterium leprae
*Streptomycin if resistant
Tx for pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae
PCN if sensitive
Others: cephalosporin, erythro
Give 2 drugs forlyme disease
What is the causative againt?
Drugs against Syphilis
What is the causative agent?
Drug for amoebiasis
Drug for malaria
Chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine
Drug for trichomoniasis
Drug for ascariosis
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