AP Psychology Practice

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operant conditioning
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According to Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, which of the following describes
practical intelligence?
(A) a student who collaborates with other students to compare areas of weakness when
studying for his AP tests
(B) a student who creates diagrams to summarize the information for each unit
(C) a student who takes multiple practice tests to analyze which questions he needs to focus
(D) a student who uses note cards to compare and contrast key terms
(E) a student who re-reads their notes repeatedly
childhood depression12. Suppose you wanted to study the effect of the amount of exercise on childhood depression. In this experiment, the dependent variable would be (A) amount of exercise (B) the children (C) childhood depression (D) the age of the child (E) the length of the depressive episodea complete lack of fearIf we suffer a lesion of the amygdala, we will most likely experienceVygotsky placed a great deal of importance on the social aspect of cognitionThe primary difference between Vygotsky and Piaget is thatFunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)Which type of brain imaging would be most helpful in determining which parts of the brain are responsive during a panic attack?aggressiveness and violence16. Which of the following is a psychological effect of a depressant (A) intense euphoria (B) loss of contact with reality (C) mental alertness (D) aggressiveness and violence (E) hallucinationsAlbert approaches the AP exam knowing that he is going to do well because he studied rigorouslyAlbert has positive self-efficacy beliefs. Which of the following describes Albert the best? (A) Albert approaches the AP exam knowing that he is going to do well because he studied rigorously. (B) Albert approaches the AP exam knowing that he is going to do well because he is naturally gifted. (C) Albert approaches the AP exam with anxiety because he knows he has not studied enough. (D) Albert approaches the AP exam with anxiety because he thinks he is not smart. (E) Albert approaches the AP exam without any emotion.peripheral route to persuasionA researcher sent students door-to-door collecting money for a hurricane relief fund. He also took photos of the student solicitors and had students from another university rate their attractiveness. The researcher found that beautiful women raised more money than all the other solicitors. Which principle best describes the reason this happened?BehavioralPsychologists who believe that the most important key to understanding behavior is to understand how it is controlled by the consequences of our behavior follow which approach?Content validityPsychologists create an assessment to determine if depression is caused by early childhood trauma. The results identify people without depression as having depression. This test is lackingschizophreniaWhich of the following disorders has the highest heritability? a) schizophrenia b) depression c) post-traumatic stress disorder d) conversion disorder e) antisocial personality disorderlong pauses after reinforcement and lower resistance to extinctionThe fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement results indream analysis23.Which of the following would be the LEAST helpful in the treatment of schizophrenia? a). family therapy b). behavior therapy c). psychopharmacology d). stress inoculation e). dream analysisJust noticeable thresholdMarcia tries to sneak a few cookies from her roommate's cookie stash. Her roommate picks up the bag and immediately notices the difference. What has been reached?DriveDaniel creates a feeling of family with his cross-country team. He pushes his athletes to hold each other accountable for their individual performances. His athletes desire the approval of the team then feels an internal motivation to perform their best. Which form of motivation is Daniel using?depressionWhich of the following disorders is more likely to be found in men than in women?impression formationSusan, a preschool teacher, believes that all girls are better behaved than boys. At the end of the first month of school, she relays stories to her colleagues of all the great things that her female students did during the first month of school. This demonstrates2%The amount of time that Julio studies in any given week is normally distributed. If Julio studies an average of 15 hours per week with a standard deviation of 3 hours, what is the probability of Julio studying more than 18 hours a week?encoding failureJonah can't recall the reasons for the Great Schism because he was daydreaming when it was discussed in history class. This is an example ofsocial learning30. The approach to personality adopted by Albert Bandura is calledObject permanence31. Which of the following skills makes concrete operations different than other previous stages? a) Object permanence b) Representational thought c) Learning to speak d) Abstract thinking e) The ability to conserveReplicability32. In a research study, the issue of operational definition is a concern ofthe sending neuron releases neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic cleftDuring action potential,social exchange theoryIn a study of social behavior, one group of participants was placed in a room with computers who could correctly answer any questions to complete a task. Another group was placed in a room with a computer that consistently answered the participants' questions wrong. All the participants were then asked to perform a very tedious task to help the performance of the computer. Participants in the first group were more exert more effort in the tedious task. This demonstrates the principle of:a) Shaun thoroughly practices his recital piece and then performs brilliantly at his show.The arousal-performance phenomenon best describes which of the following scenarios? a) Shaun thoroughly practices his recital piece and then performs brilliantly at his show. b) Rick feels overconfident of his routine and then earns third place at the competition. c) Junior feels the eyes of the audience as he delivers his lines and experiences a "tip of the tongue" experience. d) Kevin loves to sing in private but still gets "butterflies" before every show. e) Robert does not study for his oral exam and then shuts down when his teacher asks him a question.Cerebral cortex releases glucocorticoids36. What is the first thing that happens when our bodies respond to stress?a reduction in defensive behaviorCats with small bilateral lesions in their amygdala demonstratedrelative heightWhen visiting an art museum, which perceptual concept allows a person to understand depth cues in a two-dimensional painting?e) sensory adaptationThe signal detection theory proves that perception involves decisions as well as sensory processes. Which of these do not influence our ability to correctly identify the stimulus amid background noise? a) previous experiences b) expectations c) level of fatigue d) personal motivation e) sensory adaptationfalse consensus effect40. A research designs a study to find the correlation between time spent playing video games and compassionate behavior in college students. He receives many responses so he takes the first 20 volunteers and assigns them to Group A and the second 20 volunteers and assigns them to Group B. What research design principle did the researcher ignore, ultimately making his data not reliable?describes the behavior to reveal similarities to other groups.An advantage of using naturalistic observation as a method of research is itthe mean is the largest value42. If a statistical curve has a right, or positive, skew, this means thatb) As exercise increases, symptoms of depression decreases.43. If exercise and symptoms of depression are negatively correlated, which of the following is true? a) Exercising regularly can cause a decrease in symptoms of depression. b) As exercise increases, symptoms of depression decreases. c) Knowing a person's level of symptoms of depression, one can predict how often he or she exercises. d) As exercise increases, symptoms of depression increases. e) The strength of relationship can be determined by given information.The left hemisphere can processes language without the participation of the right hemisphere.44. Michael Gazzaniga's work with split-brain research established which of the following? a) The corpus collosum is vital for life. b) Humans can regenerate brain cells. c) A split-brain patient's left hemisphere will be aware of objects being held by the left hand. d) The left hemisphere can processes language without the participation of the right hemisphere. e) Hemispheric specialization does not exist.the effects of neurotransmitters do not last as long as hormones.The primary difference between the endocrine system and the nervous system issuffer more loneliness.46. Individualistic culturesIf the excitatory neurotransmitters reach the post-synaptic neuron's threshold, it will fire.47. If two pre-synaptic neurons send competing neurotransmitters, excitatory and inhibitory messages, to a post-synaptic neuron what will determine if the neuron fires?GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)Which neurotransmitter's effect is increased strengthened by alcohol?amplitude49. The perceived brightness of a color is determined by itsdamage to the ossicles.Sensorineural hearing loss is can be caused by which of the following a) a hole in the eardrum. b) damage to the ossicles. c) regular exposure to loud noises. d) fluid in the ear. e) wax buildup.pupil, iris, lens, retina, optic nerve51. In what order does light enter the eye?olfactory bulbThe arrow is pointing toBrain scans show high activity and the muscles in the body are relaxed.Why is REM sleep referred to as "paradoxical sleep?"e) It cannot be used as eyewitness testimony because memories retrieved through hypnosis can be contaminated.Which of the following is true about current findings in hypnosis? a) It can be used as eyewitness testimony because people can correctly distinguish between fact and fiction under hypnosis. b) It can be used as eyewitness testimony because hypnosis usually can focus on anxiety provoking events. c) It cannot be used as eyewitness testimony because memories retrieved through hypnosis are purely fiction. d) It can be used as eyewitness testimony because memories retrieved through hypnosis are more accurate than conscious memories. e) It cannot be used as eyewitness testimony because memories retrieved through hypnosis can be contaminated.DopamineMethamphetamine most closely mimics which neurotransmitter?HeroinA person is exhibiting the following symptoms: initial euphoria followed by drooping eyelids, shifting from alertness to drowsy, dry mouth, contracted pupils. On what drug is this person?the conditioned stimulus needs to come half a second before the unconditioned stimulus to cause acquisition.Initial research on classical conditioning found thatconditioned responses help organisms learn to avoid bad unconditioned stimuliClassical conditioning demonstrates the principal of "survival of the fittest" becausecontingency theory of classical conditioningRobert Rescorla improved upon Pavlov's orginal findings by introducing thed) The dog no longer barks at the door bell even after his shock collar was removed.Maria is using principles of operant conditioning to train her dog. Which of the following examples would demonstrate the principle of learned helplessness? a) Maria gives the dog a shock each time he pees in the house. b) Maria punishes the dog by putting him in a cage after he ate her shoes. c) The dog continues to bark each time he is put in the cage. d) The dog no longer barks at the door bell even after his shock collar was removed. e) The dog no longer pees in the house because he got a treat each time he peed outside.token economyAn autistic child receives a piece of candy after successful social encounter. Which principle is his family using to improve his social skills?spontaneous recoveryThe arrow is pointing to which phase of classical conditioning?verbal memoriesDamage to the left side of the hippocampus weakens the ability to processheuristicsSchemas and insight are two types ofthe representative heuristic.Michelle was surprised when the nurse who was helping her deliver her baby was a man. She reached this erroneous conclusion that the nurse would be female because ofc) Language is the result of reinforcementWhich of the following best describes Skinner's view of language development? a) Language is a result of the language acquisition device. b) Language is the result of cultural experiences and social learning. c) Language is the result of reinforcement. d) Language is innate. e) Humans are biologically predisposed to acquire language.Creative thinkers use only algorithms to solve problems.Which of the following is not a characteristic of a creative thinker? a) Creative thinkers are oriented toward the future. b) Creative thinkers use only algorithms to solve problems. c) Creative thinkers have trust in their own judgment. d) Creative thinkers have interests in differing fields of study. e) Creative thinkers consider the viewpoints of others.Sustained attentionThe Stroop Effect demonstrates which type of attention control?hierarchy of needsStories of human-rights workers putting themselves in danger to bring freedom and democracy to troubled regions disproves which theory of motivation?spillover effectHighly aroused sports fans are more likely get into fights with opposing teams because of thephysiological responses are not clearly distinguished to be affirmatively associated with one emotion.Walter Cannon's critique of the James-Lange theory of emotion wasidentical genes but a dissimilar home environmentWhen studying the correlation of genetic similarity to personality characteristics it is best to study individuals who havethrows his or her arms and legs in response to a sudden change in movementThe Moro reflex describes when an infantc) lifts head, rolls from front to back, sits steadily, walks along with furniture, stands aloneThe rate at which infants pass through developmental milestones is highly variable but the progression is fixed. Which of the following accurately describes the maturation of motor skills? a) rolls from front to back, grabs toes, lifts head, sits steadily, stands alone b) tracks objects from side to side, sits steadily, stands alone, walks along with furniture, crawls c) lifts head, rolls from front to back, sits steadily, walks along with furniture, stands alone d) crawls, sits steadily, rolls from front to back, stands alone, walks alone e) sits steadily, tracks objects from side to side, lifts head, stands alone, walks alonePre-conventional, Stage 2Carol is follows the rules because it has the most advantage for her. She helps her fellow classmates but only if she knows that they will help her in return. She follows her parent's rules because she know that they will give her more privileges if she does. She is in which stage of moral development?a) the child wants to be left alone but then clings to the mother when she leavesIn Mary Ainsworth classic procedure to study attachment, children were removed from their caregiver. After the caregiver returned, Ainsworth studied what was the reaction of the children to the parent. Which of the following describes a child with an anxious-resistant insecure attachment? a) the child wants to be left alone but then clings to the mother when she leaves b) the child ignores the mother when she returns to the room c) the child exhibits very little emotional range regardless of who is in the room d) the child will rock back and forth and hit themselves e) the child will run away from the mother when she tries to pick up the child after leavinga) loud noises during pregnancy.Causes of teratogenesis can be all of the following except: a) loud noises during pregnancy. b) a lack of nutrients during critical periods. c) a decrease in amniotic fluid. d) maternal chickenpox. e) getting an x-ray during pregnancy.there are too many traits to be practically useful.A major criticism of Cattell's method of personality inventory istrait theoristsThe Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is most likely to be used byhalo effectAfter an excellent interview, Jennifer overlooks her new employee's frequent mistakes. Jennifer is suffering fromd) MexicoAccording to Hofstede, in which of the following countries is there a greater difference in personality traits between genders? a) Costa Rica b) Guatemala c) Chile d) Mexico e) Uruguays factor, specific intelligenceSpearman saw the capability to use logic to problem-solve was labeled the g factor, general intelligence, but competencies in explicit areas he labeledcan learn to talk and care for his or her self but would need constant supervisionA person with an IQ score in the 25-40 range would be able tousing more questions that require nonverbal abilities.One of the ways that psychologists have tried to create tests that are more culturally fair is bya) Statistical infrequencyMike is a 20-year-old male who loves the color green. He wears green every day. His house is painted green and he drives a green car. According to which definition is Mike's behavior abnormal? a) Statistical infrequency b) Situational context c) Social norm deviance d) Subjective discomfort e) Failure to function adequatelya) anxietyWhich category of disorders is the most prevalent in the United States? a) anxiety b) mood c) somatoform d) dissociative e) schizophreniaviews the person seeking therapy as a client and not a patient.Humanistic therapies are different than behavioral therapies because humanistic therapiesthe confidentiality of the therapeutic alliance is diminished.One major disadvantage of group therapy isRational-emotive behavior therapyJoanna's therapist has taught her how to recognize her irrational beliefs, such as her belief that she must always be happy for other people to like her. Then the therapist asked Joanna to reflect on how realistic her beliefs are and finally replace those beliefs with more reasonable ones. Overtime, Joanna has been able to do this What therapeutic technique is her therapist using?Panic disorderBenzodiazepines are most commonly used to treat which disorder?in some cases, it can provide the patient with immediate relief from symptoms.A primary advantage of the medical model in explaining psychological disorders isPersonal fableSophia, a high-schooler, regularly gets into arguments with her parents. She often tells them that they could not possibly understand her struggles even when they try to empathize with her. Which element of adolescent egocentrism is Sophia demonstrating?Feel-good, do-good phenomenonWhich of the following factors would increase the likelihood of a bystander to intervene in a crisis?in-group biasStudents at Lincoln High School think that all students at their rival high school are spoiled and arrogant. Their beliefs are an example ofCognitionPhil loves football. He thinks that football is the most challenging sport because of the strategy involved in making plays. This describes which component of attitude?participants who were paid only $1 changed their attitude toward a boring task.Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith's research on cognitive dissonance showed thatself-fulfilling prophecyWhen people of Group A are aware of Group B's stereotyped opinions about them, this can influence members of Group A to behave in ways that meet the stereotype. This is known asb) A person gives $20 to a homeless person panhandling on the side of the road and drives away.Which of the following is the best example of altruism? a) A person volunteers at a homeless shelter because she feels she has to help those who don't have as much as she does. b) A person gives $20 to a homeless person panhandling on the side of the road and drives away. c) A person donates his kidney to his daughter. d) A person helps his neighbor shovel her walkway because she watches his house when he travels. e) A person donates money to a charity because without her contribution the foundation might not survive.GroupthinkThe kind of thinking that results when members of a group place more emphasis on group unity than evaluating all sides of an issue is known asb) William JamesWhich founding figure of psychology was influenced by Charles Darwin and felt that thinking evolved because it adapted to experiences of the individual? a) Wilhelm Wundt b) William James c) Edward Titchener d) Stanley Hall e) James Cattella set of rules governing the proper use of wordsGrammar refers to