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LAI 205 Chapter 1
Introduction to Child Development and Learning
Terms in this set (34)
Plato (428-347 BC) & Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Schools and parents are responsible for teaching children the self-control that would make them effective citizens.
Children's experiences simply trigger knowledge they've had since birth.
Children acquire knowledge piece by piece, based on the information provided by their senses.
John Locke (1632-1704)
Portrayed the human infant as a tabula rasa or "blank slate."
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Children begin their developmental journeys well prepared with a stockpile of knowledge.
Children worked under horrendous conditions, reformers worked to enact laws that would limit child labor and put more children in schools.
Description of evolutionary change in species and age-related changes in human behavior.
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
Founded the first scientific journal in English that published findings from child-development research.
Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
Devised the first mental tests.
Maturational theory, Arnold Gesell (1880-1961)
Child development reflects a specific and prearranged scheme or plan within the body.
Views development from an evolutionary perspective, all animals are biologically programmed so that some kinds of learning occur only at certain ages.
Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989)
"Critical Period", which is a limited time span that children will acquire certain behaviors and yet still need, the support of their environments.
Freud and Erikson are the key figures. They believe that children's development go through stages. In these stages there are conflicts between biological drive and social expectations.
Psychosexual theory, Freud
Id, ego & superego. His theory stressed importance of early childhood experiences.
Psychosocial theory, Erikson
Ego actively acquires positive attitude and skills. He believed that normal development can only be understood within each culture. This perspective focuses on social and emotional development. Emphasizes lifespan nature of development
Early Learning Theories, John Watson
Learning from experience determines what children will be.
Early Learning Theories, B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Studied operant conditioning, in which the consequences (Reinforcement & Punishment) of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated.
Social Cognitive Theory, Albert Bandura (1925-)
Experience gives children a sense of self-efficacy, beliefs about their own abilities and talents.
The Cognitive-developmental Perspective, Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Children moving through stages in regard to their thinking processes.
The Cognitive-developmental Perspective, Sensorimotor stage
Involves a baby using senses and movements to explore the world.
The Cognitive-developmental Perspective, Preoperational stage
In which children take the actions they acquired as a baby and create symbolic, but illogical thinking.
The Cognitive-developmental Perspective,
Deals with cognition that has been changed into a more organized way of reasoning.
The Cognitive-developmental Perspective,
Involves the thought process becoming more complex and allows for abstract reasoning.
Sociocultural theory, Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
Child is a cultural being. Development is the process of enculturating into a group (society) by grasping cultural artifacts (e.g., language, tools etc.).
He believed that through the conversation (interaction) between children and more matured (able) peers or adults, children could master culturally meaningful activities and develop thinking.
This theory focuses on cognitive development in social/cultural contexts. He considered cognitive development as a socially mediated process, which means children learn new skills with the guidance of adults or more matured peers as dependent ones.
Continuity - Discontinuity of Development
Development is not perfectly predictable.
Thus, the continuity-discontinuity issue is really about the "relatedness" of development: Are early aspects of development consistently related to later aspects?
Nature - Nurture
No aspects of child development are exclusively the result of either heredity or environment. Instead, development is always shaped by both nature and nurture.
This anecdote illustrates the nature-nurture issue: How do biology (nature) and environment (nurture) shape a child's development?
Active - Passive
A child's interpretation of experiences shapes their development. Also, A child's unique characteristics may cause them to have some experiences but not others.
These two points of view illustrate the active-passive child issue: Are children simply at the mercy of the environment (passive child), or do children actively influence their own development through their own unique individual characteristics (active child)?
1. Identify a question to be answered or a phenomenon to be understood.
2. Form a hypothesis that is a tentative answer to the question or a tentative explanation of the phenomenon.
3. Select a method for collecting data that can be used to evaluate the hypothesis.
Measurement in Child-Development Research
Systematic observation: naturalistic observation, structured observation
Sampling Behavior with Tasks
Investigators systematically varies the factors thought to cause a particular behavior.
Investigators look at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world.
Designs for Studying Age-Related Change
Longitudinal design, Cross-Sectional design, Longitudinal-Sequential Studies
Ethical Responsibilities in Child-Development Research
Experimenters must minimize the risks to potential research participants, describe the research so that potential participants can decide whether they want to participate, avoid deception, and keep results anonymous or confidential.
Communicating Research Results in Child-Development Research
Investigators write reports describing their findings and publish them in scientific journals. These publications form the foundation of scientific knowledge about child development.
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