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History Unit 1 Review

Terms in this set (32)

The Haymarket Square that took place on May 4th of 1886 was a peaceful protest against police brutality in Chicago that had turned violent once police had shown up and a bomb was thrown from the crowd. During this time, the 1800s, labor had been a major discussion since after the Civil War. The labor workers and protesters of this time had believed in the change in working conditions and also for capitalism in America to come to an end as a whole. The gathering at Haymarket Square had been set for the day after police had killed union strikers at the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. During the rally, police had come to intervene and tell the protesters to disperse. While the police were doing this, a bomb was thrown by an unidentified person in the crowd where the police were. After the bomb was thrown, police began to shoot in defense. Due to these actions, 6 police and 4 citizens were killed along with 8 suspects being identified. All 8 people were convicted with no tangible evidence; 4 were executed, 1 committed suicide, and 2 were pardoned. The rally highlighted the tension between businesses and labor workers. The result of Haymarket Square was the downfall of the Knights of Labor which was the largest organization in the country that advocated for social and economic reform such as better working conditions and an 8-hour workday. The organization had fallen apart as members left and joined the American Federation of Labor due to the negative views on them since people had believed them to be the cause of the Haymarket Square. Another result of the protest was the discrimination against immigrants and labor workers in society.
The transcontinental railroad is in the United States and is any continuous rail line connecting a location on the U.S. Pacific coast with one or more of the railroads of the nation's eastern trunk line rail systems operating between the Missouri or Mississippi Rivers and the U.S. Atlantic coast. In the 1860s, the United States embarked on an ambitious project that would change the course of the country's history. For decades, entrepreneurs and engineers had dreamed of building a railroad that would span the continent from ocean to ocean. The Transcontinental Railroad, once completed, allowed Americans to settle the west, to transport goods and expand commerce, and to travel the width of the country in days, instead of weeks. Before the building of the Transcontinental Railroad, it cost nearly $1,000 dollars to travel across the country, but after the railroad was completed the price dropped to $150 dollars. The building of the transcontinental railroad opened up the American West to more rapid development. When it was passed by Congress in 1862, the Pacific Railway Act permitted two companies to begin construction on the Transcontinental Railroad. The Central Pacific Railroad and The Union Pacific Railroad were granted the contract to lay the track. Connecting the two American coasts made the economic export of Western resources to Eastern markets easier than ever before. The railroad also facilitated westward expansion, escalating conflicts between Native American tribes and settlers who now had easier access to new territories.
During the 19th century, many Europeans began to spread west, which caused confrontation between American settlers and Native Americans who lived in the area. As a result, the federal government attempted to solve this "Indian Problem" by exerting control and situating Natives away from white settlers using the reservation system; a system that designated boundaries and retricted Native Americans to reside on communally used land where they were self-governed. However, this assimulation failed, and many historical battles known as the "Indian Wars", which lasted from 1860 to 1890. Although the Chief Joseph of the Nez Perces surrendered in 1877, many hard-liner white settler's and Christian reformers felt it necessary to conform Indians to American civilization and destroy Indian tradition which was considered uncivilized, leading to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1877. This act gave shares of land to individual hosueholds and split up Indian Reservations completely. Other provisions of this act included that each of the heads of households received 160-acres of land, and the federal government would hold each allotment in trust for 25 years, until the Indians could prove themselves as "good white settlers". Ultimately though, the Indians were granted full citizenship in 1924. This act was significant to US history because had not it been declared, our culture in society may have been totally different. Also, if the US allowed for this rebellion to continue, then it could have influenced other rebellions in regards to other individual cultures and freedom reforms today.
The Open Door Policy was a policy between China, the US, Japan, and several European(namely Germany and Britain) powers that stated each of those countries should have equal access to Chinese trade. It was created in 1899 by US Secretary of State John Hay and lasted until 1949, when the Chinese civil war ended as the Communist Party took over rule of China. China was seen as a potentially very lucrative trade market for the rest of the world and the US wanted to be part of it. After the end of the Spanish American War, the US gained control of the Phillipine Islands and our interest in trade with that area of the world strengthened. Hays wrote the Act to ensure every country had equal trade opportunities and that no one country could "close the door" on any other country's trade.
Why the Open Door Policy was created:
The Open Door Policy was created during the Age of Imperialism, a period during the late 19th century and early 20th century when European powers, as well as countries like the US and Japan, were attempting to expand their global power through colonialism and territory expansion.
The US had recently gained a foothold in East Asia, and they were afraid they'd be forced out of the Chinese market by countries who had been there longer than them, so they created the policy to ensure they wouldn't lose their ability to trade with China.
The impacts of the The Open Door Policy: impacts lasted for decades, and it had three major impacts.
Increased Chinese backlash against foreigners
Led to an increase in Chinese and American conflict with Japan
Increased US interest in East Asia as they saw this region as great way to increase trade and make money for the US.