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APUSH - Period #8, Vocabulary Review
Period 8: 1945 - 1980
Terms in this set (223)
Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill)
Signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 22, 1944, this act, also known as the GI Bill, provided veterans of the Second World War funds for college education, unemployment insurance, and housing.
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
The desperate need for housing after the war resulted in a construction boom. William J. Levitt led in the development of postwar suburbia with his building and promotion of Levittown, a project of mass-produced, low-priced family homes on Long Island, New York. Low interest rates on mortgages that were both government-insured and tax deductible made the move from city to suburb affordable for almost any family of modest means
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Employment Act of 1946
Legislation declaring that the government's economic policy should aim to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power, as well as to keep inflation low. A general commitment that was much shorter on specific targets and rules than its liberal creators had wished. The Act created the Council of Economic Advisers to provide the president with data and recommendations to make economic policy.
racial integration of military
In 1948, President Truman ordered the end of racial discrimination throughout the federal government including the armed forces. The end of segregation changed life on military bases, many of which were in the South.
Amendment that created a 2 term limit on presidents.
Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
anti-union law passed by increasingly conservative Congress over Truman's veto. Prohibited the closed shop (union only), permitted states to ban union-shop agreements (to become anti-union "right to work" states), forbade union contributions to candidates in federal elections, forced union leaders to swear in affidavits that they were not communists, and mandated an 80 day cooling off period before carrying out strikes. This enraged labor, who called it a "slave labor" law. Helped contribute to massive decline in unions.
Election of 1948
The U.S. presidential election of 1948 is considered by most historians as the greatest election upset in American history. Virtually every prediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that incumbent President Harry S. Truman would be defeated by Republican Thomas Dewey. Truman won, overcoming a three-way split in his own party. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive win for the Democratic Party in a presidential election. Truman's election confirmed the Democratic Party's status as the nation's majority party, a status they would retain until the 1980's.
FDR's Vice President from 1940 - 1944. He was a former Democratic who ran on the New Progressive Party due to his disagreement on Truman's policy with the Soviets. He caused the Democratic party to split even more during the election season of 1948.
States-Rights party (Dixiecrats)
In 1948, Southern Democrats formed this new party in reaction and to protest President Truman's support of civil rights.
J. Strom Thurmond
South Carolinian who was the presidential candidate of the States' Rights (Dixiecrat) party in 1948.
He was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. As a leader of the liberal faction of the Republican party he fought the conservative faction led by Senator Robert A. Taft, and played a major role in nominating Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency in 1952.
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
Origins of the Cold War
centered around intense rivalry between two superpowers, many believe Truman's policies were misunderstandings and overreactions to Russia's need to secure its borders, others called Truman "soft"
the power struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States after World War II
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
Security Council (UN)
Made up of 5 permanent members (Britain, China, France, United States, and Russia) and 10 rotating members. Discusses conflicts that threaten peace, and can authorize the use of the UN peacekeeping forces. Permanent members have veto power.
World Bank and International Monetary Fund
International organizations which channel funds to developing nations in order to provide a form of economic assistance.
Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, all of these were satellites, or nations under the control of a great power; in this situation, the Soviet Union.
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Established by the Truman administration in 1947 to contain Soviet influence to what it was at the end of World War II.
He was an American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
He was Secretary of State under Harry Truman. It is said that he was more responsible for the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine than those that the two were named for.
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
a group of 28 countries that has agreed to protect each other in case of an attack from the Soviet Union; founded in 1949
National Security Act
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
Nuclear Arms Race
the Cold War competition between superpowers to develop more powerful and greater numbers of nuclear weapons
A National Security Council document, approved by President Truman in 1950, developed in response to the Soviet Union's growing influence and nuclear capability; it called for an increase in the US conventional and nuclear forces to carry out the policy of containment
US-Japanese Security Treaty
A bilateral alliance between the United States and Japan, created in 1951 against the potential Soviet threat to Japan. The United States maintains troops in Japan and is committed to defend Japan if attacked, and Japan pays the United States to offset about half the cost of maintaining the troops.
(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman after he called for Atomic bombs to be dropped on China.
Chinese Civil War (1946-1949)
Nationalist (Jeishi) vs. Communist (Mao), after WWII, after they got rid of their common enemy, Japan. Fighting for control, the Communists won
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
an island in southeastern Asia 100 miles off the coast of mainland China in the South China Sea, it became a refuge for the Nationalists who fled to Taiwan after the Communist Party won the Civil War and seized power.
Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
People's Republic of China (PRC)
Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.
Korean War (1950-1953)
began as a civil war between North and South Korea (which had been established by the USSR and US respectively), but the conflict soon became international when, under U.S. leadership, the United Nations joined to support South Korea and China entered to aid North Korea. The war left Korea divided along the 38th parallel. The Korean War was an example of the U.S. Cold War policies of containment and militarization, setting the stage for the further enlargement of the U.S. defense perimeter in Asia (Vietnam)
Kim II Sung
Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.
noncommunist dictatorial leader of South Korea who was backed by the United States
38th Parallel (DMZ)
demilitarized zone that separates North and South Korea
Second Red Scare/McCarthyism
Widespread fear (stoked by conservative politicians, Nixon first, and McCarthy after) of communist infiltration of the US that followed WWII. This led to repression of political dissenters as well as fear of the repercussions (job loss, prison) of being seen as a communist sympathizer or spy resulted in the consensus and conformity of the 1950s
Loyalty Review Board
(1947) federal board set up by President Truman that checked up on government workers, and dismissed those found to be communist.
Smith Act of 1940
made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the US government by force or violence
Dennis et al. v. United States
1951, The Supreme Court upheld the conviction clearing the way for prosecution of other communist leaders. The administration charged eleven top communists with violating the Smith Act of 1940, which made it a crime to conspire to "advocate and teach" the violent overthrow of government. After ten months of trial and deliberation, a lower court declared the Smith Act constitutional and the communists guilty.
McCarran Internal Security Act (1950)
1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
A congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following World War II.
Individuals who were prevented from working in the film industry because of their suspected involvement with Communist interests.
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
A confessed Communist and a star witness for the HUAC in 1948 when he testified against Alger Hiss.
This couple, Julius and Ethel, were charged with running a spy ring for the Soviets in New York. In 1953, they were convicted of treason and executed. Their trial and execution was an international scandal.
DWIGHT EISENHOWER (IKE)
34th PRESIDENT: 1953 to 1961 (Republican)
A two term president, he is forever associated with the prosperity of the 1950s. A five-star Army general and Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during WWII, he reluctantly chose Richard Nixon as his Vice President. He was the first "term-limited" president in accordance with the 22nd Amendment.
Earl Warren/Warren Court
Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation of the Constitution to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.
Southern Manifesto (1956)
Document written by members of Congress who opposed racial integration and encouraged the overturning of the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education ruling. Encouraged white resistance by individuals and state governments in the South to public school integration.
Little Rock Crisis/Little Rock Nine
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
Arab unity between arabic nations in the Middle East
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and triggered a national civil rights movement
Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States
Suez Canal Crisis (1956)
Led by Nasser, Egypt wanted to control canal; Great Britain, France, and Israel joined together and attacked Egypt; None of the countries let the US know what was going on--Eisenhower was livid; feared the Russians would get involved—so Egypt gained control; Importance: 1. First time colonial nation blew off a colonizers policies; 2. US & USSR worked toward a common goal of no war; 3. Proved UN could be an effective organization
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
A political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. It was inspired by the actions of Rosa Parks.
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Interstate Highway System
Ike backed the interstate highway act of 1956, a $27 billion plan to build forty-two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
1957 group founded by Martin Luther King Jr. to fight against segregation using nonviolent means
John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State, he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
is the practice of pushing dangerous events to the brink of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome.
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest
a secret political, economic, or military operation sponsored by a government and designed to support a foreign policy objective
Iranian Overthrow (1953)
CIA helped overthrow democratic government in Iran that had tried to nationalize the holding of foreign oil companies. The United States returned the Shah of Iran to power.
Korean Armistice (1953)
An agreement between North and South Korea to stop fighting, in order to achieve a negotiated resolution to the Korean War. The resolution was never achieved, the armistice continues to exist today. An armistice is an agreement to cease fighting, but it is not the same as a peace treaty.
a French colony comprised of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam; it won independence from France in 1954
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South Vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
Geneva Conference (1954)
French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
"Atoms for Peace" speech
Proposal by Eisenhower to hand over nuclear materials to a peaceful UN body, rejected by Stalin.
A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.
1956 - Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.
Warsaw Pact (1955)
Soviet Allies that agreed to protect each other in the even of an attack
First man-made satellite put into orbit by the USSR. This caused fear in the US that the Soviets had passed them by in science & technology and the arms race. Democrats scorched the Republican administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower for allowing the United States to fall so far behind the communists. Eisenhower responded by speeding up the U.S. space program (NASA), which resulted in the launching of the satellite Explorer I on January 31, 1958. The "space race" had begun. In 1969, the US would land men on the moon, a major victory.
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight
U-2 Incident (1960)
U.S. spy plane piloted by
Francis Gary Powers
was shot down over the Soviet Union forcing the Eisenhower administration to acknowledge responsibility for the surveillance mission.
Fidel Castro (Cuba)
Leader of the Cuban Revolution who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist inspired socialist state in Cuba
Military Industrial Complex
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans.
the ending of segregation (separation) by race
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
Ruled that separation of the races in public schools is unconstitutional; reversed the Plessy v. Ferguson decision
a form of protest used during the Civil Rights Movement. Students from the NAACP Youth Council began this movement by sitting in segregated lunch-counters and refusing to leave even in the when physically assaulted. This is a form of direct action protest.
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
group formed by student activists; used the sit-in as an effective method of protest
Operation Wetback (1954)
A government program to roundup and deport as many as one million illegal Mexican migrant workers in the United States. The program was promoted in part by the Mexican government and reflected burgeoning concerns about non-European immigration to America.
The Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger
Based partly on Salinger's own childhood but set in post-WWII America, the novel follows Holden Caulfield, an adolescent who feels pressure from all sides to grow up and conform to the rules of the adult world. It's use of slang and profanity and its frank discussions of sexuality had caused it to be banned in many places since its publication. The novel tells of Holden's three days in Manhattan after getting expelled from boarding school but before going home to his family.
The Lonely Crowd
Book written by David Riesman that criticized the people of the 50s who no longer made decisions based on morals, ethics and values; they were allowing society to tell them what is right and wrong.
The Affluent Society (1958)
John Kenneth Galbraith criticized society where increasing private affluence exists along increasing poverty. He urged greater government expenditures on education and health care.
Catch -22 (Literature)
Novel by Joseph Heller, phrase becomes synonymous with an absurd and no-win situation
small group of writers and artists, in the 1950s and early 1960s, who were critical of American society
Election of 1960
*Richard Nixon, Eisenhower's former vice president, was nominated by the Republicans
*Senator John F. Kennedy was nominated by the Democrats
*Kennedy's Catholicism was a campaign issue because of fears that Catholic leaders would influence him
*The four presidential debates were televised and watched by approximately 75 million Americans
*Nixon's negative appearance on television affected voters' perception of him and aided Kennedy in the election
* Kennedy won by a narrow margin
John F. Kennedy
First Catholic President, President of the US during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
JFK's brother who was Attorney General during JFK's Presidency. He ran for President in 1968 and was assassinated during the Democratic primary race.
American first lady and wife of president Kennedy; she was known for her style and social grace; was used to create a favorable public opinion about his presidency.
Race to the Moon
race between the Soviets and the US in the advance of science and space exploration
assassination in Dallas
On November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, after just two and a half years in office, President John Kennedy was shot and killed.
The U.S. commission in charge with investigating the assassination of JFK. It came to the conclusion that Oswald was alone in his actions and advised to reform presidential security measures.
an agency established in 1961 to provide volunteer assistance to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Alliance for Progress (1961)
a series of cooperative aid projects with Latin American governments (Kennedy's plan to improve relations between the US and Latin America); called for a 10-year $20 billion donation to establish good schools, housing, health care, and land distribution; Good effect on Chile, Columbia, Venezuela, and the Central American republics (prevented Communism); Some countries used the cash to keep their rulers and militaries in power.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs.
Berlin Wall (1961)
The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushchev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, afterwards Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
A confrontation among the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States in October 1962, during the Cold War.
A policy, developed during the Kennedy administration, that involved preparing for a variety of military responses to international crises rather than focusing on the use of nuclear weapons.
Lyndon Johnson's Great Society
LBJ's attempt to continue New Deal type programs. Aims were ending poverty, reducing pollution, regenerating urban life, and pursuing Civil Rights legislation.
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
Barry Goldwater and the Election of 1964
Republican candidate for the Presidency in 1964, Author of Conscience of a Conservative: demanded a more aggressive conduct of the Cold War, directed most of his critique against internal dangers to freedom (New Deal welfare state), The outcome was a disastrous defeat, The Campaign marked a milestone in the resurgence of American conservatism, Goldwater's success in Deep South suggested that politicians could strike electoral gold by appealing to white opposition to the civil rights movement
Medicare and Medicaid
Great Society programs to have the government provide medical aid to the elderly (Medicare) and the poor (Medicaid).
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
1965 - Provided federal funding for primary and secondary education and was meant to improve the education of poor people. This was the first federal program to fund education.
Immigrant Act (1965)
opened the door for many non-European immigrants to settle in the US by ending quotas based on nationality
Ralph Nader, Unsafe at Any Speed
His 1965 book lead Congress to pass automobile industry regulations that would save thousands of lives.
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
An American marine biologist wrote in 1962 about her suspicion that the pesticide DDT, by entering the food chain and eventually concentrating in higher animals, caused reproductive dysfunctions. In 1973, DDT was banned in the U.S. except for use in extreme health emergencies.
Lady Bird Johnson
first lady after Jackie Kennedy, contributed to the environment with her Beautify America campaign
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
a government agency with the power to investigate complaints of employment discrimination and the power to sue firms that practice it
24th Amendment (1964)
Abolishes poll taxes
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi
Racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 (Famous for the slogan: "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); Ran for President In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket with a platform that embraced racism and law and order, lost to Nixon; ran again in 1972 and narrowly survived assassination attempt. He remained a fixture of southern and Presidential politics throughout the 1970 and 1980s.
March on Washington (1963)
a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech calling for racial and economic justice at the Lincoln Memorial during the march. Widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965). 80% of the marchers were black. Organized by union leader A. Philip Randolph.
"I Have A Dream" speech
Given August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
March to Montgomery (1965)
voting rights march from Selma to Montgomery in Alabama; there were police beatings of protestors, LBJ sent troops to stop the violence
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulses to achieve true independence and equality
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
an interracial group founded in 1942 by James Farmer to work against segregation in Northern cities
Stokely Carmichael (Black Power)
A leader of the Black Nationalist movement in 1966, he coined the phrase "Black Power".
Watts riots, 1965
In the summer of 1965 the arrest of a black motorist in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles led to a six-day riot that resulted in the deaths of 34 people and the destruction of 700 buildings.
de facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
Kerner Commission Report
Purpose was to investigate the causes of the 1965-67 race riots in urban U.S. cities; Problems: believed our nation was headed towards two societies, one black and one white - separate and unequal. Says the media only portrays news from the white man's perspective which causes minorities to be portrayed in a negative light; in order to have an equal society, society needs to be more responsible on how it portrays minorities.
King assassination (1968)
Martin Luther King, Jr., a prominent American leader of the African-American civil rights movement and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, was assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at the age of 39. On June 10, 1968, James Earl Ray, a fugitive from the Missouri State Penitentiary, was arrested in London at Heathrow Airport, extradited to the United States, and charged with the crime. On March 10, 1969, Ray entered a plea of guilty and was sentenced to 99 years in the Tennessee state penitentiary. Ray later made many attempts to withdraw his guilty plea and be tried by a jury, but was unsuccessful; he died in prison on April 23, 1998, at the age of 70.
Warren Court (1953-1969)
the Supreme Court during the era in which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice, best remembered for expanding the rights of minorities and the rights of the accused
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Supreme court case that ruled evidence illegally gathered by the police may not be used in a criminal trial.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Extends to the defendant the right of counsel in all state and federal criminal trials regardless of their ability to pay.
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
Ruled that a defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Established Miranda warnings of counsel, defendants being read their rights, and the right to be silent. This practice known as the police reading someone their "Miranda rights" must be given before police question a suspect; example of Warren Court's judicial activism.
Baker v. Carr (1962)
"One man, one vote." Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population; example of Warren Court's judicial activism.
Yates v. United States (1957)
Ruled that the First Amendment protected radical and revolutionary speech, including that of Communists, unless it presented a "clear and present danger" to the safety of the country.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools by virtue of 1st Amendment's establishment clause and the 14th Amendment's due process clause; example of Warren Court's judicial activism.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that the Constitution implicitly guarantees citizens' right to privacy.
privacy and contraceptives
In 1965, the Supreme Court ruled in Griswold v. Connecticut case that a citizen's had the right to privacy, and a state could not prohibit the use of contraceptives by adults.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
a youth-dominated political movement of the 1960s, embodied in such organizations as Students for a Democratic Society and the Free Speech Movement
Weathermen (Weather Underground)
They were the most radical fringe of the SDS, they embraced violence and vandalism in their approach
A culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture.
1969, Woodstock Music & Art Fair (informally, Woodstock or The Woodstock Festival) was a music festival, As one of the biggest rock festivals of all time and a cultural touchstone for the late Sixties, Woodstock has been referenced in many different ways in popular culture. The phrase "the Woodstock generation" became part of the common lexicon.
Controversial Indiana University "sexologist" who documented Americans' changing sexual behavior
Sexual Revolution of the 1960's
marketing of birth control made possible what "free lovers" had long demanded-the separation of sex from procreation; central to the "second wave" of feminism
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
gave the women's movement a new direction by encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers rather than confining themselves to the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker.
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
An amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act, this act requires equal pay for men and women doing equal work.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Fall of Diem
In 1963, South Vietnam's leader was overthrown and killed by South Vietnamese generals in a coup.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964)
After President Johnson claimed North Vietnamese forces attacked U.S. boats in international
waters in the Gulf of Tonkin, the U.S. Congress voted to give the president a "blank check" to do
whatever was necessary to stop communism in South Vietnam.
General based in Vietnam that helped cause the credibility gap by telling the American people the war was almost over when thousands of Americans were being killed.
Tet Offensive (1968)
The Tet Offensive was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the VietCong and North Vietnamese Army against the forces of South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. It failed militarily, but had an enormous psychological impact on the US, showing that the war was far from over, and proving that the government was lying about the war to the American people.
1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon Baines Johnson on an anti-war platform.
Two months after MLK's assassination in 1968, Robert Kennedy was assassinated in the kitchen of the Ambassador Hotel in LA. The killer, Sirahn Sirahn is still in jail for the crime. This prompted the Secret Service to protect not only the incumbent president, but also presidential candidates.
A prominent liberal senator from Minnesota dedicated to the promotion of civil rights, he served as Johnson's vice-president from 1964-68 and ran an unsuccessful personal campaign for the presidency in 1968.
The 1968 Democratic Convention was held in Chicago. Television showed what looked like a "police riot" as antiwar protesters were brutally beaten.
In the 1968 presidential election, the growing hostility of many whites to federal desegregation, antiwar protests, and race riots was tapped by Governor George Wallace of Alabama. He became the American Independent party's presidential candidate.
Nixon Foreign Policy
Vietnam (negotiated a ceasefire), opened relations with China and enacted detente with the Soviet Union; Vietnamization; bombed Cambodia and Laos
United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President Ford
President Richard Nixon's strategy for ending U.S involvement in the Vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawal of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
President Nixon's plan for "peace with honor" in Vietnam. The doctrine stated that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments but, in the future, countries would have to fight their own wars.
Kent State Massacre
The Kent State shootings, also known as the May 4 massacre or Kent State massacre, occurred at Kent State University in the city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of students by members of the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. Four students were killed and nine others were wounded, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.
My Lai Massacre
In 1968 American troops massacred women and children in the Vietnamese village of My Lai; this deepened American people's disgust for the Vietnam War.
Pentagon Papers, 1971
Secret document papers, leaded by Daniel Ellsberg, published by the New York Times in 1971, showed the blunders and deceptions that led the United States that led to the Vietnam war. Revealed the government misleading the people of its involvement in Vietnam, both about the intentions and the outcomes of the conflict.
Paris Accords of 1973
In January 1973, the North Vietnamese agreed to an armistice, in which the United States would withdraw the last of its troops and get back over 500 prisoners of war (POWs). The agreement also promised a cease-fire and free elections. However, the armistice did not end the war, but it allowed the United States to extricate itself.
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
Nixon's China visit, 1972
October 1971, the UN expelled the representatives from Taiwan and recognized the communist delegation as true representatives of China. In 1972, Nixon made a well-publicized goodwill visit to communist China and met with Mao Tse-Tung.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
Part of the policy of detente, attempted to reduce the weapons each country contains
Middle East War (1973)
On October 6, 1973, the Syrians and Egyptians launched a surprise attack on Israel in an attempt to recover the lands lost in the Six-Day War of 1967. President Nixon ordered the U.S. nuclear forces on alert and airlifted almost $2 billion in arms to Israel to stem their retreat. The tide of battle quickly shifted in favor of the Israelis.
An organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum.
system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
Nixon's plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party
off the gold standard
In 1971, President Nixon took the U.S. off the gold standard, which helped to devalue the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies.
A United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
a conservative jurist appointed by Nixon that nonetheless continued the judicial activism of the Warren Court as seen by Roe v. Wade; this was due to the other members of the court rather than his own liberal beliefs
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Supreme Court Case ruling: Certain state criminal abortion laws violate the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment, which protects against state action the (implied) right to privacy in the Bill of Rights (9th amendment). Abortion cannot be banned in the 1st trimester (1st 3 months), states can regulate the 2nd trimester, In the 3rd trimester, abortion is illegal except to save the life of the mother.
Election of 1972
With the McGovern campaign in shambles and the Watergate scandal appearing contained, Nixon won overwhelmingly (61% of the vote and 520 electoral votes). McGovern carried only MA and Washington DC.
Democrat running against Nixon on antiwar platform in 1972 election
In June 1972, a group of men hired by Nixon's reelection committee were caught breaking into the offices of the Democratic national headquarters in the Watergate complex. This break-in and attempted bugging (installing illegal recording devices) were only part of a series of illegal activities. No proof demonstrated that Nixon had ordered the illegal activities. However, it was shown that Nixon participated in the illegal cover up of the scandal.
United States v. Nixon
The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously ruled against Nixon and held that the doctrine of executive privilege was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions.
War Powers Act (1973)
Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
Nixon's impeachment and resignation
The start of impeachment hearings in the House forced Nixon to eventually turn over the Watergate tapes, tape recordings of Nixon in his office. The tapes clearly implicated Nixon in the cover-up. The House Judiciary Committee voted three articles of impeachment: (1) obstruction of justice, (2) abuse of power, and (3) contempt of Congress. On August 9, 1974 Nixon resigned after being informed that the vote to remove him in the Senate would pass. He resigned prior to the Senate voting to remove him.
a U.S. presidency that is characterized by greater power than the Constitution allows.
Gerald Ford (1974-1977)
Major Events: Took over when Nixon resigned; Pardoned Nixon for his crimes
Pardon of Nixon
In his first month in office President Gerald Ford granted Richard Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crime he might have committed in office.
reform of CIA
Former Congressman George H. W. Bush was appointed by President Ford to reform this agency after it had been accused of assassinating foreign leaders.
Fall of Saigon (1975)
Soon after the Paris Peace Accords removed the last of the American troops from South Vietnam, the Vietnam War escalated, and a full-scale offensive launched in March 1975 brought the fall of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, a month later. Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City and Vietnam was reunited under the rule of the North Vietnamese Communist government.
In 1975, the U.S. supported government in Cambodia fell to the Khmer Rouge, a radical self described Communist faction that killed over one million of its people in an effort to rid the country of western influence.
battle over inflation
Ford tried to put inflation under control, urged people to wear WIN buttons [Whip Inflation Now]. Inflation continued, country sank deeper into recession w/ unemployment reaching 9%. Ford finally agreed to Democratic package to stimulate the economy.
Bicentennial Celebration of 1976
United States' 200th birthday
Election of 1976: Carter (D) v. Ford (R)
Jimmy Carter (D) v. Gerald Ford (R). Ford's popularity was low due to his pardon of Richard Nixon and stagflation (unemployment rate of 8.5% and an inflation rate of 9%). A former career naval officer and then governor of Georgia, Carter campaigned as an outsider to Washington politics and won in a close election.
(1977-1981), As President, Carter created the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. His last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which contributed to his loss to Ronald Regan in the next election.
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings
Panama Canal Treaty
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Iranian Hostage Crisis (1979-1980)
In November 1979, Iranian revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
Soviet Afghanistan invasion
In December 1979, Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan, an action that ended a decade of improving U.S.-Soviet relations.
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
Federal law requiring employers to verify and maintain records on applicants' legal rights to work in the United States
Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions
American Indian Movement (AIM)
a civil rights group organized to promote the interests of Native Americans
Indian Self-Determination Act (1975)
Gave reservations and tribal lands greater control over internal programs, education, and law enforcement.
Gay liberation movement
In the 1970s, homosexuals began an effort to win social and legal acceptance and to encourage gays to affirm their sexual identity. Despite some advances, the movement was slowed by the onset of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s and the insistence of the military on banning openly gay individuals from the armed services.
Earth Day (1970)
International day of celebration and awareness of global environmental issues launched by conservationists on April 22, 1970
Exxon Valdez accident
In 1989, this oil tanker ran aground and created a massive oil spill off the coast of Alaska.
Three Mile Island
*A nuclear power plant located south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, overheated, causing part of its uranium core to melt
*The overheating was caused by human, design, and mechanical errors
*Radioactive water and gases were released
*Led to a slowdown in the construction of other reactors and changes in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
*Americans became more aware of environmental concerns
On April 26, 1986, a sudden surge of power during a reactor systems test destroyed Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in the former Soviet Union. The accident and the fire that followed released massive amounts of radioactive material into the environment.
Clean Air Act of 1970
The law aimed at combating air pollution, by charging the EPA with protecting and improving the quality of the nation's air.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The US federal agency with a mission to protect human health and the environment.
Clean Water Act of 1972
Establishes and maintains goals and standards for U.S. water quality and purity. It has been amended several times, most prominently in 1987 to increase controls on toxic pollutants, and in 1990, to more effectively address the hazard of oil spills.
In 1980, Congress created this fun to clean up toxic dumps, such as Love Canal in New York state.
Endangered Species Act of 1973
A law requiring the federal government to protect all species listed as endangered.
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